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The Power of Youth: How Invisible Children Orchestrated Kony 2012

March 14, 2012

To many people unfamiliar with Invisible Children, the Kony 2012 campaign looked like a brilliant example of “viral” media spread. The center of the campaign is a compelling 30-minute film where a father talks to his son about the evil practices of the Ugandan war lord Joseph Kony. The father makes it clear that his number one goal is to make Kony a household name in order to “raise support for his arrest and set a precedent for international justice.” In the days that followed, critics stepped up and critiqued the simplistic narrative (and colonial rhetoric) put forward by Invisible Children. (If you haven’t read it, I strongly recommend Ethan Zuckerman’s “Unpacking Kony 2012.”) Yet, what about the media campaign itself? Activists (and brand marketers) everywhere are in awe of what appears to be a magical campaign that came out of nowhere. But there’s more than meets the eye here.

Over at the SocialFlow blog, Gilad Lotan (my partner) analyzed two aspects of the Invisible Children campaign:

  1. how pre-existing networks helped create the viral spread;
  2. how people targeted celebrities to garner attention philanthropy. There are many important aspects of this blog post, but I want to focus on the role of youth in this process.

Invisible Children is not a new organization. They have spent tremendous effort over the last decade reaching out to youth. They have widespread reach in high schools, colleges, and churches throughout the United States. Many youth are (uncritically) committed to helping stop bad things from happening to other children in Africa. Invisible Children has focused for years on the value of attention philanthropy. They work diligently to do whatever it takes to get people to pay attention to bad things happening in the world. They raise money to raise attention. They leverage celebrities and Hollywood film tactics to reach wide audiences in a hope to activate them to create more attention (and, thus, both funding and political pressure). They engage directly with churches, where word-of-mouth networks in the U.S. are strongest. For the last decade, they have worked on creating films and bringing in celebrities to raise attention to what is happening in Africa, first in Sudan (Darfur) and then in Uganda.

Much to the horror of many human rights activists, Invisible Children is not known for spreading accurate information as much as it’s known for spreading information widely.

Most of how they’ve gotten the message out is by engaging youth. Earlier films have been shown directly to youth (in schools and churches) and youth are actively encouraged to join the organization and participate in their campaigns. They provide toolkits for participation with the primary goal being to amplify attention to a particular issue.

The stories that Invisible Children create in their media put children at the front and center of them. And, indeed, as Neta Kliger-Vilenchik and Henry Jenkins explain, youth are drawn to this type of storytelling. Watch Kony 2012 from the perspective of a teenager or college student. Here is a father explaining to a small child what’s happening in Africa. If you’re a teen, you see this and realize that you too can explain to others what’s going on. The film is powerful, but it also models how to spread information. The most important thing that the audience gets from the film is that they are encouraged to spread the gospel. And then they are given tools for doing that. Invisible Children makes it very easy to share their videos, republish their messages on Facebook/Twitter/Tumblr, and “like” them everywhere. But they go beyond that; they also provide infrastructure to increase others’ attention.

Invisible Children knew that it was targeting culture makers and youth. And Twitter users no less. Indeed, check out the list of “culture makers” that they encouraged youth to target. It’s an interesting mix of liberals (George Clooney, Ellen Degeneres, Bono), conservatives (Rick Warren, Rush Limbaugh, Bill O’Reilly), geeks (Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg), big philanthropy names (Oprah, Angelina Jolie, Warren Buffett), and pop stars (Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift, Rihanna, Jay-Z, Justin Bieber). Plus others. They also recommended contacting political figures. (Interestingly, they start with G.W. Bush and Condoleeza Rice and don’t list Obama at all.) As Lotan points out, these celebrities got pummeled with thousands upon thousands of messages from fans, predominantly young fans. And many of them responded.

When celebrities receive this kind of onslaught from their fans – and, especially their younger fans – they pay attention. And so they post out about this. This is exactly where the fuzzy feelings towards attention philanthropy kick in. Young people feel like they did something by getting a celebrity to pay attention to a cause. A celebrity feels like they’ve done some by talking about the cause to a wide audience. And, voila, Invisible Children taps into the attention economy to get their message out.

Yet, there’s more to this. It’s not just anyone who’s paying attention or a small cluster of people that are paying attention from which things radiate. This tag cloud from the SocialFlow blog represents the words that were in the bios of the accounts of those who posted about #stopkony or #kony2012.

Now, check out this network graph of the tweets:

The initial tweets that came out came from seemingly disconnected youth living in Midwestern and Southern towns who frequently refer to Christian values in their bios. In other words, these tweets appear to be coming from communities that Invisible Children had already activated prior to launching Kony 2012. Not only did they then each turn on, but they spread the messages to their friends. This allowed the conversation to “pop” and then spread. The one profile that does have a lot of cluster is the Invisible Children profile, highlighting how their audience was indeed ready to respond to them. But you also see tight clusters that geographically disparate who bridged from the organization and then spread in their local community with a level of intense density. With this kind of graph structure, it’s not surprising that it quickly became a trending topic on Twitter. And then, it could easily spread. Attention begets attention.

I’m especially intrigued by Gilad’s note on the role of religious youth in all of this. Gilad has only begun looking at the data so he doesn’t have a good scope on all of what’s happening, but I’m not surprised by the presence of religious language in the accounts of those who tweeted this message. I very much suspect that a lot of what made this pop has to do with strong pre-existing Christian networks. I’m always surprised at how often people in the tech community regularly underestimate the power of religious networks.

Architecturally, this is a brilliant campaign. It’s really too bad that the message is so deeply flawed. (Again, if you haven’t read Ethan’s post, read it now.)

The fact that privileged folks – including white American youth – can spread messages like this is wonderful, but my hunch is that they’re structurally positioned to spread information farther and wider than those who are socially marginalized. What happens when they try to speak out on behalf of marginalized voices instead of helping marginalized voices be heard? I’m really bothered by how Kony 2012 is all about white people – and primarily white Americans – talking about what should be done in a foreign country to help “poor black people.” I’m glad that NPR and a few other news organizations have sought out Ugandan/African perspectives, but none of those perspectives have broken through the tornado of chaos that has followed this event. So I can’t help but wonder… with the rise of attention philanthropy, are we going to see a new type of attention colonialism?

12 Comments leave one →
  1. March 14, 2012 12:01 pm

    Great piece, Danah … thanks. On your closing comments about Kony2012 being “all about white people”, I’m currently about 1/3rd through a shot-by-shot analysis of the original Kony film and came across an interesting thing at around the 08:21 mark. This is where Russell says “It’s not just about Jacob. Or me. It’s about you”, accompanied by a mosaic shot of around 200 profile pics. Maybe it’s just me, but is there a single black face in amongst this 200? Possibly some mixed race, but it looks incredibly white to me. Most of the other shots in the film of Russell talking at screenings, demos, conferences etc it’s also to a white audience, but I thought the mosaic shot was the most interesting since – as the filmmaker – he would have had a degree of control over which faces he chose to include … and exclude. This is a guy who knows his audience.

  2. March 14, 2012 1:37 pm

    Is this such a bad thing? I have read many critiques of the Kony2012 campaign and Invisible Children–it appears to be much less popular to say that they are amassing a force of incredible future power. If rich white kids use their voices and votes to promote their mostly rich, predominantly white representatives to government to work on behalf of social justice – what is wrong with that? As the very clever and persuasive film-makers state, this campaign can be the first of many campaigns – campaigns that not only motivate rich white kids (and others) to think beyond their small insular worlds, but may (gasp) spark them to continue being involved in social justice and politics. Would you rather these kids start to think about social justice or just play games on the computer? Certainly some people who get involved in this campaign will start to read more about social justice, become more engaged in politics, become active to help the youth of the United States, and consider more carefully where they want their tax dollars to go.

    I think adults are afraid of the power of motivated and organized youth. If youthful idealism can be directed toward good of any kind, I am in favor of it.

  3. March 15, 2012 3:27 am

    Reblogged this on Profesorbaker's Blog: A Bit of Everything and commented:
    Dr. Danah Boyd: “Activists (and brand marketers) everywhere are in awe of what appears to be a magical campaign that came out of nowhere. But there’s more than meets the eye here.”

  4. Habiba permalink
    March 19, 2012 11:53 am

    But it’s not just white kids. What is intriguing to me is the way in which it was spread to many in my circle – who are not American and not Christian. In my circles, young Muslim friends and their parents in and outside of the US spread the news of Kony. Aside from the brilliance of the marketing architecture, there’s something about the way that the producers secularize evangelical discourse on Africa to make it appealing to those who, while having the best of intentions, are uncritical if not uninformed.

  5. April 20, 2012 6:23 pm

    You certainly hit it on the head when you mentioned that the campaign has been one concerning Caucasians. It certainly emphasizes differences in both wealth and access, which are so intricately tied.

    Perhaps what makes KONY so much more interesting as a case to look at is not necessarily the speed at which the campaign spread, but rather the content. After all, other campaigns have traveled quickly and utilized pre-existing networks and celebrity power, such as the It Gets Better Campaign. Given that statistics and marketing campaigns often aim to have short video clips or low-attention span, it becomes rather amazing that a 30 minute video is one that captivates audiences. Of course, it becomes clear that it might not necessarily be true that all those that have shared the video have watched it; many have ended up sharing the message out of “convenience” more than anything to show that they are on the proverbial bandwagon.

Trackbacks

  1. Links – March 14, 2012 | zota
  2. Trois stratèges web se prononcent sur #Kony2012 | Überwe
  3. KONY 2012 – analysing the film « ranDoM MusinGs of a cuRIous filmmaKEr
  4. The Social Media Behind Kony 2012 « PRactical Thinking
  5. Organically Social | | suitsandladders.world.edusuitsandladders.world.edu

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