Content Moderation: A Reading List

The study of content moderation by social media platforms has exploded in the last few years, paralleling the attention finally being paid by journalists, lawmakers, and users. It is a vital concern in its own right, and it offers a powerful case study for thinking about the power of platforms and how they shape the dynamics of online sociality, and for understanding the nature and structure of the mediated public sphere. This list is intended to collect and organize as much of that work as possible, to be a resource for those who study and teach about content moderation, the power of platforms, and the contours of online discourse.

Some notes and observations:

– this list is inevitably incomplete; PLEASE suggest readings I have overlooked, or improvements to the list’s organization – either via the comment thread at the bottom, or by emailing me directly.

– I have limited the list to scholarship that examines aspects of content moderation itself. I have excluded, for example, work on the “wicked problems” faced by platforms, such as harassment or hate speech, unless the questions of how to moderate it are a big part of the analysis; I have also excluded scholarship about the broader power and impact of social media platforms. This is not to suggest that content moderation should be studied as a singular or isolated phenomenon; this is only to keep the focus of the list on content moderation as its central concern.

– While there is a section on the implications of automated moderation techniques, I have also left out the technical academic literature that is developing these techniques.

 

last updated: October 1, 2019

A. Overviews and Essential Work – start here

A1. books

Citron, Danielle Keats. 2014. Hate Crimes in Cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2018. Custodians of the Internet: Platforms, Content Moderation, and the Hidden Decisions That Shape Social Media. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Jeong, Sarah. 2015. The Internet of Garbage. Forbes Media.

Kaye, David. 2019. Speech Police: The Global Struggle to Govern the Internet. New York: Columbia Global Reports.

Kosseff, Jeff. 2019. The Twenty-Six Words That Created the Internet. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Laidlaw, Emily B. 2015. Regulating Speech in Cyberspace: Gatekeepers, Human Rights and Corporate Responsibility. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Phillips, Whitney. 2015. This Is Why We Can’t Have Nice Things: Mapping the Relationship between Online Trolling and Mainstream Culture. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Roberts, Sarah T. 2019. Behind the Screen: Content Moderation in the Shadows of Social Media. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Suzor, Nicolas. 2019. Lawless: The Secret Rules That Govern Our Digital Lives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

A2. articles and reports

Balkin, Jack M. 2018. “Free Speech in the Algorithmic Society: Big Data, Private Governance, and New School Speech Regulation.” UC Davis Law Review 51: 1149-1210.

Caplan, Robyn. 2019. Content or Context Moderation? Artisanal, Community-Reliant, and Industrial Approaches. Data & Society Research Institute.

DeNardis, Laura and Andrea Hackl. 2015. “Internet Governance by Social Media Platforms.” Telecommunications Policy 39(9): 761-770.

Flew, Terry, Fiona Martin, and Nicolas Suzor. 2019. “Internet Regulation as Media Policy: Rethinking the Question of Digital Communication Platform Governance.” Journal of Digital Media & Policy 10(1): 33-50.

Gerrard, Ysabel. 2018. “Beyond the Hashtag: Circumventing Content Moderation on Social Media.” New Media & Society 20(12): 4492-4511.

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2015. “Platforms Intervene.” Social Media + Society 1(1):2056305115580479.

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2018. “Regulation of and by Platforms.” Pp. 254-278 in The SAGE Handbook of Social Media. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Goldman, Eric. 2019. “An Overview of the United States’ Section 230 Internet Immunity.” in The Oxford Handbook of Online Intermediary Liability, edited by G. Frosio. Oxford University Press.

Gorwa, Robert. 2019. “What Is Platform Governance?” Information, Communication & Society 22(6): 854-871.

Grimmelmann, James. 2014. “Speech Engines.” Minnesota Law Review 98(3): 868-952.

Humphreys, Sal. 2013. “Predicting, Securing and Shaping the Future: Mechanisms of Governance in Online Social Environments.” International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics 9(3): 247-258.

Jørgensen, Rikke Frank. 2018. “Human Rights and Private Actors in the Online Domain.” Pp. 243-69 in New Technologies for Human Rights Law and Practice, edited by M. K. Land and J. D. Aronson. Cambridge University Press.

Keller, Daphne. 2018. Internet Platforms: Observations on Speech, Danger, and Money. #1807. Hoover Institution.

Keller, Daphne. 2019. Who Do You Sue? State and Platform Hybrid Power over Online Speech. #1902. Hoover Institution.

Klonick, Kate. 2018. “The New Governors: The People, Rules and Processes Governing Online Speech.” Harvard Law Review 131: 73.

Kreiss, Daniel and Shannon C. Mcgregor. 2019. “The ‘Arbiters of What Our Voters See’: Facebook and Google’s Struggle with Policy, Process, and Enforcement around Political Advertising.” Political Communication 1-24.

Marwick, Alice. 2017. “Are There Limits to Online Free Speech?” Points // Medium.

Massanari, Adrienne. 2017. “#Gamergate and The Fappening: How Reddit’s Algorithm, Governance, and Culture Support Toxic Technocultures.” New Media & Society 19(3): 329-346.

Napoli, Philip M. and Robyn Caplan. 2017. “When Media Companies Insist They’re Not Media Companies and Why It Matters for Communications Policy.” First Monday 22(5).

Roberts, Sarah T. 2017. “Content Moderation” edited by L. A. Schintler and C. L. McNeely. Encyclopedia of Big Data.

Roth, Yoel. 2015. “‘No Overly Suggestive Photos of Any Kind’: Content Management and the Policing of Self in Gay Digital Communities.” Communication, Culture & Critique 8(3): 414-432.

Schwarz, Ori. 2019. “Facebook Rules: Structures of Governance in Digital Capitalism and the Control of Generalized Social Capital.” Theory, Culture & Society.

Taddeo, Mariarosaria and Luciano Floridi. 2016. “The Debate on the Moral Responsibilities of Online Service Providers.” Science and Engineering Ethics 22(6): 1575-1603.

Verhulst, Stefaan. 2006. “The Regulation of Digital Content.” Pp. 329-349 in The Handbook of New Media: Social shaping and consequences of ICTs, edited by L. Lievrouw and S. Livingstone. London: SAGE Publications.

York, Jillian C. 2010. Policing Content in the Quasi-Public Sphere. OpenNet Initiative.

York, Jillian C. 2015. “Solutions for Online Harassment Don’t Come Easily.” The Fibreculture Journal (26): 297-301.

Zarsky, Tal Z. 2014. “Social Justice, Social Norms and the Governance of Social Media.” Pace Law Review 35: 154.

B. How Moderation Works

B1. Community management in the early web

Barzilai-Nahon, Karine and Seev Neumann. 2005. “Bounded in Cyberspace: An Empirical Model of Self-Regulation in Virtual Communities.” in Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. IEEE.

Brunton, Finn. 2013. Spam: A Shadow History of the Internet. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chen, Jianqing, Hong Xu, and Andrew B. Whinston. 2011. “Moderated Online Communities and User-Generated Content.” Journal of Management Information Systems 28(2).

Cheng, Justin, Cristian Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, and Jure Leskovec. 2015. “Antisocial Behavior in Online Discussion Communities.” in arXiv:1504.00680.

Dibbell, Julian. 2005. “A Rape in Cyberspace.” The Village Voice, October 18.

Dutton, William H. 1996. “Network Rules of Order: Regulating Speech in Public Electronic Fora.” Media, Culture & Society 18(2): 269-290.

Goldman, Eric. 2005. “Speech Showdowns at the Virtual Corral.” Santa Clara Computer and High Technology Law Journal 21(4): 101-110.

Halavais, Alexander. 2009. “Do Dugg Diggers Digg Diligently? Feedback as Motivation in Collaborative Moderation Systems.” Information, Communication & Society 12(3): 444-459.

Kiesler, Sara, Robert Kraut, Paul Resnick, and Aniket Kittur. 2011. “Regulating Behavior in Online Communities.” Pp. 77-124 in Building successful online communities: Evidence-based social design, edited by R. E. Kraut and P. Resnick. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kollock, Peter and Marc Smith. 1996. “Managing the Virtual Commons.” Pp. 109-128 in Computer-mediated communication: Linguistic, social, and cross-cultural perspectives, edited by S. Herring. Amsterdam: John Benjamis.

Lampe, Cliff. 2012. “The Role of Reputation Systems in Managing Online Communities.” in The Reputation Society: How Online Opinions Are Reshaping the Offline World, edited by H. Masum and M. Tovey. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Lampe, Cliff and Paul Resnick. 2004. “Slash (Dot) and Burn: Distributed Moderation in a Large Online Conversation Space.” Pp. 543-550 in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM.

Lampe, Cliff, Paul Zube, Jusil Lee, Chul Hyun Park, and Erik Johnston. 2014. “Crowdsourcing Civility: A Natural Experiment Examining the Effects of Distributed Moderation in Online Forums.” Government Information Quarterly 31(2): 317-326.

MacKinnon, Richard C. 2002. “Punishing the Persona: Correctional Strategies for the Virtual Offender.” Pp. 206-235 in Virtual Culture: Identity and Communication in Cybersociety. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Pfaffenberger, Bryan. 1996. “‘If I Want It, It’s OK’: Usenet and the (Outer) Limits of Free Speech.” The Information Society 12(4): 365-386.

Phillips, David J. 1996. “Defending the Boundaries: Identifying and Countering Threats in a Usenet Newsgroup.” The Information Society 12(1): 39-62.

Postigo, Hector. 2009. “America Online Volunteers: Lessons from an Early Co-Production Community.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 12(5): 451-469.

Sarkar, Chandan, Donghee Wohn, Cliff Lampe, and Kurt DeMaagd. 2012. “A Quantitative Explanation of Governance in an Online Peer-Production Community.” Pp. 2939-2942 in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM.

B2. Content guidelines

Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society. 2018. Memorandum on Content Regulation by Podcast Platforms. Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society.

De Zwart, Melissa. 2018. “Keeping the Neighbourhood Safe: How Does Social Media Moderation Control What We See (And Think)?” Alternative Law Journal.

Jeong, Sarah. 2016. “The History of Twitter’s Rules.” Motherboard / Vice, January 14.

Jhaver, Shagun, Larry Chan, and Amy Bruckman. 2018. “The View from the Other Side: The Border between Controversial Speech and Harassment on Kotaku in Action.” First Monday 23(2).

Milosevic, Tijana. 2016. “Social Media Companies’ Cyberbullying Policies.” International Journal of Communication 10: 5164-5185.

Milosevic, Tijana. 2018. Protecting Children Online?: Cyberbullying Policies of Social Media Companies. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Pater, Jessica A., Moon K. Kim, Elizabeth D. Mynatt, and Casey Fiesler. 2016. “Characterizations of Online Harassment: Comparing Policies Across Social Media Platforms.” Pp. 369-374 in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP ’16). New York, N.Y.: ACM Press.

B3. Community / flagging approaches to moderation

Crawford, Kate and Tarleton Gillespie. 2016. “What Is a Flag for? Social Media Reporting Tools and the Vocabulary of Complaint.” New Media & Society 18(3): 410-428.

Ehrett, John S. 2016. “E-Judiciaries: A Model for Community Policing in Cyberspace.” Information & Communications Technology Law 25(3): 272-291.

Farkas, Johan and Christina Neumayer. 2017. “‘Stop Fake Hate Profiles on Facebook’: Challenges for Crowdsourced Activism on Social Media.” First Monday 22(9).

Geiger, R. Stuart and David Ribes. 2010. “The Work of Sustaining Order in Wikipedia: The Banning of a Vandal.” Pp. 117-126 in Proceedings of the 2010 ACM conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. ACM.

Ghosh, Arpita, Satyen Kale, and Preston McAfee. 2011. “Who Moderates the Moderators?: Crowdsourcing Abuse Detection in User-Generated Content.” Pp. 167-176 in Proceedings of the 12th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce. ACM.

Gomez Marmol, Felix, Manuel Gil Perez, and Gregorio Martinez Perez. 2014. “Reporting Offensive Content in Social Networks: Toward a Reputation-Based Assessment Approach.” IEEE Internet Computing 18(2): 32-40.

Kerr, Aphra and John D. Kelleher. 2015. “The Recruitment of Passion and Community in the Service of Capital: Community Managers in the Digital Games Industry.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 32(3): 177-192.

Kou, Yubo and Xinning Gui. 2017. “The Rise and Fall of Moral Labor in an Online Game Community.” Pp. 223-226 in. Portland, OR: ACM Press.

Matias, J. Nathan. 2016. “Going Dark: Social Factors in Collective Action Against Platform Operators in the Reddit Blackout.” Pp. 1138-1151 in Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM Press.

Matias, J. Nathan. 2019. “The Civic Labor of Volunteer Moderators Online.” Social Media & Society 5(2):205630511983677.

Matias, J. Nathan, Amy Johnson, Whitney Erin Boesel, Brian Keegan, Jaclyn Friedman, and Charlie DeTar. 2015. Reporting, Reviewing, and Responding to Harassment on Twitter. Women, Action & the Media.

Naab, Teresa K., Anja Kalch, and Tino GK Meitz. 2018. “Flagging Uncivil User Comments: Effects of Intervention Information, Type of Victim, and Response Comments on Bystander Behavior.” New Media & Society 20(2): 777-795.

Nakamura, Lisa. 2015. “The Unwanted Labour of Social Media: Women of Colour Call out Culture as Venture Community Management.” New Formations 86: 106-112.

Seering, Joseph, Tony Wang, Jina Yoon, and Geoff Kaufman. 2019. “Moderator Engagement and Community Development in the Age of Algorithms.” New Media & Society 21(7): 1417-1443.

Squirrell, Tim. 2019. “Platform Dialectics: The Relationships between Volunteer Moderators and End Users on Reddit.” New Media & Society 21(9): 1910-1927.

B4. The labor behind commercial content moderation

Carmi, Elinor. 2019. “The Hidden Listeners: Regulating the Line from Telephone Operators to Content Moderators.” International Journal of Communication 13:440–58.

Roberts, Sarah T. 2016a. “Commercial Content Moderation: Digital Laborers’ Dirty Work.” Pp. 147–59 in Intersectional Internet: Race, Sex, Class and Culture Online, edited by S. U. Noble and B. Tynes. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.

Roberts, Sarah T. 2016b. “Digital Refuse: Canadian Garbage, Commercial Content Moderation and the Global Circulation of Social Media’s Waste.” Wi: Journal of Mobile Media 10(1):1–18.

Ruckenstein, Minna and Linda Lisa Maria Turunen. 2019. “Re-Humanizing the Platform: Content Moderators and the Logic of Care.” New Media & Society 1461444819875990.

Smyrnaios, N. and E. Marty. 2017. “Occupation: ‘Net Cleaner’. The Socio-Economic Issues of Comment Moderation on French News Websites (Profession « nettoyeur Du Net ». De La Modération Des Commentaires Sur Les Sites d’information Français).” Réseaux 205(5):57–90.

Wohn, Donghee Yvette. 2019. “Volunteer Moderators in Twitch Micro Communities: How They Get Involved, the Roles They Play, and the Emotional Labor They Experience.” Pp. 1–13 in Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Glasgow, Scotland Uk: ACM Press.

B5. Technical approaches to content moderation, and their implications

Ananny, Mike. 2019. “Probably Speech, Maybe Free: Toward a Probabilistic Understanding of Online Expression and Platform Governance.” Knight First Amendment Institute, August 21.

Binns, Reuben, Michael Veale, Max Van Kleek, and Nigel Shadbolt. 2017. “Like Trainer, like Bot? Inheritance of Bias in Algorithmic Content Moderation.” Social Informatics 2017: 405-415.

Chancellor, Stevie, Zhiyuan (Jerry) Lin, and Munmun De Choudhury. 2016. “‘This Post Will Just Get Taken Down’: Characterizing Removed Pro-Eating Disorder Social Media Content.” Pp. 1157-1162 in Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM Press.

Citron, Danielle and Benjamin Wittes. 2017. “Follow Buddies and Block Buddies: A Simple Proposal to Improve Civility, Control, and Privacy on Twitter.” Lawfare. Retrieved (https://www.lawfareblog.com/follow-buddies-and-block-buddies-simple-proposal-improve-civility-control-and-privacy-twitter).

Delort, Jean-Yves, Bavani Arunasalam, and Cecile Paris. 2011. “Automatic Moderation of Online Discussion Sites.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce 15(3): 9-30.

Duarte, Natasha, Emma Llanso, and Anna Loup. 2017. Mixed Messages? The Limits of Automated Social Media Content Analysis. Center for Democracy and Technology.

Engstrom, Evan and Nick Feamster. 2017. The Limits of Filtering: A Look at the Functionality and Shortcomings of Content Detection Tools. Engine.

Gehl, Robert W., Lucas Moyer-Horner, and Sara K. Yeo. 2017. “Training Computers to See Internet Pornography: Gender and Sexual Discrimination in Computer Vision Science.” Television & New Media 18(6): 529-547.

Geiger, R. Stuart. 2016. “Bot-Based Collective Blocklists in Twitter: The Counterpublic Moderation of Harassment in a Networked Public Space.” Information, Communication & Society 19(6): 787-803.

Gollatz, Kirsten, Felix Beer, and Christian Katzenbach. 2018. The Turn to Artificial Intelligence in Governing Communication Online. Humboldt Institute.

Gröndahl, Tommi, Luca Pajola, Mika Juuti, Mauro Conti, and N. Asokan. 2018. “All You Need Is ‘Love’: Evading Hate-Speech Detection.” Pp. 2-12 in Proceedings of the 11th ACM Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Security. Toronto.

Jhaver, Shagun, Iris Birman, Eric Gilbert, and Amy Bruckman. 2019. “Human-Machine Collaboration for Content Regulation: The Case of Reddit Automoderator.” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 26(5): 1-35.

Jhaver, Shagun, Sucheta Ghoshal, Amy Bruckman, and Eric Gilbert. 2018. “Online Harassment and Content Moderation: The Case of Blocklists.” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 25(2): 1-33.

Link, Daniel and Bernd Hellingrath. 2016. “A Human-Is-the-Loop Approach for Semi-Automated Content Moderation.” P. 13 in 13th Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

Munk, Timme Bisgaard. 2017. “100,000 False Positives for Every Real Terrorist: Why Anti-Terror Algorithms Don’t Work.” First Monday 22(9).

Reeves, Joshua. 2017. “Of Social Networks and Suicide Nets: Biopolitics and the Suicide Screen.” Television & New Media 18(6): 513-528.

Sinnreich, Aram. 2018. “Four Crises in Algorithmic Governance.” Annual Review of Law and Ethics 26:13.

Thakor, Mitali. 2018. “Digital Apprehensions: Policing, Child Pornography, and the Algorithmic Management of Innocence.” Catalyst: Feminism, Theory, Technoscience 4(1): 1-16.

Wulczyn, Ellery, Nithum Thain, and Lucas Dixon. 2016. “Ex Machina: Personal Attacks Seen at Scale.” Pp. 1391-99 in Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web. Perth, Australia.

Young, Li-Yin. 2018. “The Effect of Moderator Bots on Abusive Language Use.” Pp. 133-137 in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence  – PRAI 2018. Union, NJ, USA: ACM Press.

B6. Moderatiing specific thorny problems

Ben-David, Anat and Ariadna Matamoros-Fernández. 2016. “Hate Speech and Covert Discrimination on Social Media: Monitoring the Facebook Pages of Extreme-Right Political Parties in Spain.” International Journal of Communication 10: 1167-1193.

Caplan, Robyn, Lauren Hanson, and Joan Donovan. 2018. Dead Reckoning: Navigating Content Moderation After “Fake News.” Data & Society Research Institute.

Fishman, Brian. 2019. “Crossroads: Counter-Terrorism and the Internet.” Texas National Security Review 2(2): 82-100.

Haimson, Oliver L. and Anna Lauren Hoffmann. 2016. “Constructing and Enforcing ‘Authentic’ Identity Online: Facebook, Real Names, and Non-Normative Identities.” First Monday 21(6).

Ibrahim, Yasmin. 2010. “The Breastfeeding Controversy and Facebook: Politicization of Image, Privacy and Protest.” International Journal of E-Politics 1(2): 16-28.

Paasonen, Susanna, Kylie Jarrett, and Ben Light. 2019. NSFW: Sex, Humor, and Risk in Social Media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Suzor, Nicolas, Bryony Seignior, and Jennifer Singleton. 2017. “Non-Consensual Porn and the Responsibilities of Online Intermediaries.” Melbourne University Law Review 40(3): 1057-1097.

Syed, Nabiha. 2017. “Real Talk About Fake News: Towards a Better Theory for Platform Governance.” Yale Law Journal 127:21.

C. Users and content moderation

C1. Effect on user practices

Buehler, Emily M. 2017. “‘You Shouldn’t Use Facebook for That’: Navigating Norm Violations While Seeking Emotional Support on Facebook.” Social Media + Society 3(3):2056305117733225.

Duguay, Stefanie, Jean Burgess, and Nicolas Suzor. 2018. “Queer Women’s Experiences of Patchwork Platform Governance on Tinder, Instagram, and Vine.” Convergence 1354856518781530.

Gibson, Anna. 2019. “Free Speech and Safe Spaces: How Moderation Policies Shape Online Discussion Spaces.” Social Media + Society 5(1):205630511983258.

Jhaver, Shagun, Darren Scott Appling, Eric Gilbert, and Amy Bruckman. 2019. “‘Did You Suspect the Post Would Be Removed?’’’: Understanding User Reactions to Content Removals on Reddit.’” P. 33 in Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction. Vol. 3.

Jhaver, Shagun, Amy Bruckman, and Eric Gilbert. 2019. “Does Transparency in Moderation Really Matter?: User Behavior After Content Removal Explanations on Reddit.” P. 27 in Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction. Vol. 3.

Kennedy, Jenny, James Meese, and Emily van der Nagel. 2016. “Regulation and Social Practice Online.” Continuum 30(2): 146-157.

Khattak, Sheharbano, Mobin Javed, Syed Ali Khayam, Zartash Afzal Uzmi, and Vern Paxson. 2014. “A Look at the Consequences of Internet Censorship Through an ISP Lens.” Pp. 271-284 in Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Internet Measurement Conference – IMC ’14. Vancouver, BC, Canada: ACM Press.

Massanari, Adrienne. 2017. “#Gamergate and The Fappening: How Reddit’s Algorithm, Governance, and Culture Support Toxic Technocultures.” New Media & Society 19(3): 329-346.

Shaw, Frances. 2013. “Still ‘Searching for Safety Online’: Collective Strategies and Discursive Resistance to Trolling and Harassment in a Feminist Network.” The Fibreculture Journal (22 2013: Trolls and The Negative Space of the Internet).

Sherrick, Brett and Jennifer Hoewe. 2018. “The Effect of Explicit Online Comment Moderation on Three Spiral of Silence Outcomes.” New Media & Society 20(2): 453-474.

C2. User resistance / activism

Anderson, Jessica, Kim Carlson, Matthew Stender, Sarah Myers West, and Jillian York. 2016. Censorship in Context: Insights from Crowdsourced Data on Social Media Censorship. Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Anderson, Jessica, Matthew Stender, Sarah Myers West, and Jillian C. York. 2016. Unfriending Censorship: Insights from Four Months of Crowdsourced Data on Social Media Censorship. Onlinecensorship.org.

Blackwell, Lindsay, Jill Dimond, Sarita Schoenebeck, and Cliff Lampe. 2017. “Classification and Its Consequences for Online Harassment: Design Insights from HeartMob.” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 1(CSCW): 1-19.

Chancellor, Stevie, Jessica Annette Pater, Trustin A. Clear, Eric Gilbert, and Munmun De Choudhury. 2016. “#thyghgapp: Instagram Content Moderation and Lexical Variation in Pro-Eating Disorder Communities.” Pp. 1199-1211 in Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). ACM Press.

Fiore-Silfvast, Brittany. 2012. “User-Generated Warfare: A Case of Converging Wartime Information Networks and Coproductive Regulation on YouTube.” International Journal of Communication 6: 24.

Gerrard, Ysabel. 2018. “Beyond the Hashtag: Circumventing Content Moderation on Social Media.” New Media & Society 20(12): 4492-4511.

Kou, Yubo, Yong Ming Kow, and Gert-Jan Gui. 2017. “Resisting the Censorship Infrastructure in China.” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Conference. University of Hawai’i at Manoa.

Rojas-Galeano, Sergio. 2017. “On Obstructing Obscenity Obfuscation.” ACM Transactions on the Web 11(2): 1-24.

West, Sarah Myers. 2017. “Raging Against the Machine: Network Gatekeeping and Collective Action on Social Media Platforms.” Media and Communication 5(3): 28-36.

Zidani, Sulafa. 2018. “Represented Dreams: Subversive Expressions in Chinese Social Media as Alternative Symbolic Infrastructures.” Social Media + Society 4(4): 205630511880951.

C3. Bias and perceptions of bias

Hall, Jeffrey James. 2018. “Japan’s Right-Wing YouTubers: Finding a Niche in an Environment of Increased Censorship.” Asia Review 8(1): 315-347.

Media Research Center. 2018. Censored! How Online Media Companies Are Suppressing Conservative Speech. Media Research Center.

Shen, Qinlan, Michael Miller Yoder, Yohan Jo, and Carolyn P. Rose. 2018. “Perceptions of Censorship and Moderation Bias in Political Debate Forums.” P. 10 in Proceedings of the Twelfth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM 2018).

West, Sarah Myers. 2018. “Censored, Suspended, Shadowbanned: User Interpretations of Content Moderation on Social Media Platforms.” New Media & Society 20(11): 4366-4383.

D. Platform governance and regulation

D1. Principles and ethics of platform governance

Bengani, Priyanjana. 2018. Controlling the Conversation: The Ethics of Social Platforms and Content Moderation. Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Columbia University.

Busch, Thorsten and Tamara Shepherd. 2014. “Doing Well by Doing Good? Normative Tensions Underlying Twitter’s Corporate Social Responsibility Ethos.” Convergence 20(3): 293-315.

Cohn, Cindy. 2018. “Bad Facts Make Bad Law: How Platform Censorship Has Failed so Far and How to Ensure That the Response to Neo-Nazis Doesn’t Make It Worse.” Georgetown Law and Technology Review 2: 21.

Flew, Terry. 2015. “Social Media Governance.” Social Media + Society 1(1): 2056305115578136.

Gomes de Andrade, Norberto Nuno, Dave Pawson, Dan Muriello, Lizzy Donahue, and Jennifer Guadagno. 2018. “Ethics and Artificial Intelligence: Suicide Prevention on Facebook.” Philosophy & Technology 31(4): 669-684.

Gorwa, Robert. 2019. “The Platform Governance Triangle: Conceptualising the Informal Regulation of Online Content.” Internet Policy Review 8(2).

Helberger, Natali, Jo Pierson, and Thomas Poell. 2018. “Governing Online Platforms: From Contested to Cooperative Responsibility.” The Information Society 34(1): 1-14.

Hill, Stephanie. 2019. “Empire and the Megamachine: Comparing Two Controversies over Social Media Content.” Internet Policy Review 8(1).

Laidlaw, Emily B. 2017. “Myth or Promise? The Corporate Social Responsibilities of Online Service Providers for Human Rights.” Pp. 135-155 in The Responsibilities of Online Service Providers. Vol. 31, edited by M. Taddeo and L. Floridi. Springer International Publishing.

MacKinnon, Rebecca, Elonnai Hickok, Allon Bar, and Hai-in Lim. 2014. Fostering Freedom Online: The Roles, Challenges and Obstacles of Internet Intermediaries. United Nations Educational.

Masullo Chen, Gina, Ashley Muddiman, Tamar Wilner, Eli Pariser, and Natalie Jomini Stroud. 2019. “We Should Not Get Rid of Incivility Online.” Social Media + Society 5(3): 205630511986264.

Mueller, Milton. 2019. Challenging the Social Media Moral Panic: Preserving Free Expression under Hypertransparency. #876. Cato Institute.

Mueller, Milton L. 2015. “Hyper-Transparency and Social Control: Social Media as Magnets for Regulation.” Telecommunications Policy 39(9): 804-10.

Obar, Jonathan A. and Steve Wildman. 2015. “Social Media Definition and the Governance Challenge: An Introduction to the Special Issue.” Telecommunications Policy 39(9): 745-750.

Roberts, Sarah. 2018. “Digital Detritus: ‘Error’ and the Logic of Opacity in Social Media Content Moderation.” First Monday 23(3).

Schwarz, Ori. 2019. “Facebook Rules: Structures of Governance in Digital Capitalism and the Control of Generalized Social Capital.” Theory, Culture & Society 36(4): 117-141.

Shadmy, Tomer. 2019. “The New Social Contract: Facebook’s Community and Our Rights.” Boston University International Law Journal 37: 51.

Suzor, Nicolas, Tess Van Geelen, and Sarah Myers West. 2018. “Evaluating the Legitimacy of Platform Governance: A Review of Research and a Shared Research Agenda.” International Communication Gazette 80(4): 385-400.

Taddeo, Mariarosaria and Luciano Floridi. 2017. “New Civic Responsibilities for Online Service Providers.” Pp. 1-10 in The Responsibilities of Online Service Providers. Vol. 31, edited by M. Taddeo and L. Floridi. Springer International Publishing.

Weiland, Morgan N. 2018. “The Paradox of Platforms-as-Press: Unwinding This Analogy to Solve the Platform Accountability Problem.”

D2. …in terms of human rights principles

Al Jaloud, Abdul Rahman, Hadi Al Khatib, Jeff Deutch, Dia Kayyali, and Jillian C. York. 2019. Caught in the Net: The Impact of “Extremist” Speech Regulations on Human Rights Content. Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Baranetsky, Victoria. 2019. “Keeping the New Governors Accountable: Expanding the First Amendment Right of Access to Silicon Valley.” Knight First Amendment Institute, August 21.

Belli, Luca and Jamila Venturini. 2016. “Private Ordering and the Rise of Terms of Service as Cyber-Regulation.” Internet Policy Review 5(4).

Jørgensen, Rikke Frank. 2017. “What Platforms Mean When They Talk About Human Rights.” Policy & Internet 9(3): 280-296.

Jørgensen, Rikke Frank. 2018. “Framing Human Rights: Exploring Storytelling within Internet Companies.” Information, Communication & Society 21(3): 340-355.

Jorgensen, Rikke Frank, ed. 2019. Human Rights in the Age of Platforms. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Kaye, David. 2018. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression. A/HRC/38/35. UN Human Rights Council.

La Rue, Frank. 2011. “Promotion and Protection of All Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Including the Right to Development.”

Sander, Barrie. 2019. “Freedom of Expression in the Age of Online Platforms: Operationalising a Human Rights-Based Approach to Content Moderation.” SSRN Electronic Journal.

Suzor, Nicolas, Molly Dragiewicz, Bridget Harris, Rosalie Gillett, Jean Burgess, and Tess Van Geelen. 2019. “Human Rights by Design: The Responsibilities of Social Media Platforms to Address Gender-Based Violence Online: Gender-Based Violence Online.” Policy & Internet 11(1): 84-103.

Venturini, Jamila, Luiza Louzada, Marilia Maciel, Nicolo Zingales, Konstantinos Stylianou, and Luca Belli. 2016. Terms of Service and Human Rights: An Analysis of Online Platform Contracts. Editora Revan.

D3. … in terms of rule of law principles

Meyerson, Michael. 1994. “Virtual Constitutions: The Creation of Rules for Governing Private Networks.” Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 8(1): 129-153.

Suzor, Nicolas. 2010. “The Role of the Rule of Law in Virtual Communities.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 25(4): 1817-1886.

Suzor, Nicolas. 2012. “Order Supported by Law: The Enforcement of Norms in Virtual Communities.” Mercer Law Review 63: 523-595.

Suzor, Nicolas. 2018. “Digital Constitutionalism: Using the Rule of Law to Evaluate the Legitimacy of Governance by Platforms.” Social Media + Society 4(3): 205630511878781.

D4. … as multi-sided markets

Cohen, Julie E. 2017. “Law for the Platform Economy.” UC Davis Law Review 51:133.

Evans, David S. 2012. “Governing Bad Behavior by Users of Multi-Sided Platforms.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 27(2):1201–50.

Lobel, Orly. 2016. “The Law of the Platform.” Minnesota Law Review 101(1):87–166.

Mansell, Robin. 2015. “Platforms of Power.” Intermedia 43(1):20–24.

Srnicek, Nick. 2016. Platform Capitalism. 1 edition. Cambridge, UK ; Malden, MA: Polity.

E. moderation in other forms

E1. moderation beyond the big 4 U.S. platforms

Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society. 2018. Memorandum on Content Regulation by Podcast Platforms. Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society.

Busch, Thorsten, Kelly Boudreau, and Mia Consalvo. 2016. “Toxic Gamer Culture, Corporate Regulation, and Standards of Behavior among Players of Online Games.” Pp. 176-190 in Video Game Policy Production, Distribution, and Consumption, edited by S. Conway and J. deWinter. Routledge.

Busch, Thorsten, Florence Chee, Alison Harvey, Kate Grosser, Lauren McCarthy, and Maureen Kilgour. 2016. “Corporate Responsibility and the Governance of Gender-Based Harassment in Online Game Spaces.” Pp. 31-45 in Gender Equality and Responsible Business: Expanding CSR Horizons. Greenleaf.

Chandrasekharan, Eshwar, Umashanthi Pavalanathan, Anirudh Srinivasan, Adam Glynn, Jacob Eisenstein, and Eric Gilbert. 2017. “You Can’t Stay Here: The Efficacy of Reddit’s 2015 Ban Examined Through Hate Speech.” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 1(CSCW): 1-22.

Chandrasekharan, Eshwar, Mattia Samory, Shagun Jhaver, Hunter Charvat, Amy Bruckman, Cliff Lampe, Jacob Eisenstein, and Eric Gilbert. 2018. “The Internet’s Hidden Rules: An Empirical Study of Reddit Norm Violations at Micro, Meso, and Macro Scales.” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2(CSCW): 1-25.

Draper, Nora A. 2018. “Distributed Intervention: Networked Content Moderation in Anonymous Mobile Spaces.” Feminist Media Studies 19(5): 667-683.

Fairfield, Joshua A. T. 2008. “Anti-Social Contracts: The Contractual Governance of Virtual Worlds.” McGill Law Journal 53: 427-476.

Fiesler, Casey. 2018. “Reddit Rules! Characterizing an Ecosystem of Governance.” P. 10 in Twelfth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. Stanford, CA.

Forte, Andrea, Vanesa Larco, and Amy Bruckman. 2009. “Decentralization in Wikipedia Governance.” Journal of Management Information Systems 26(1): 49-72.

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2018. “Exodus International: Banned Apps, App Stores, and the Politics of Visibility.” in Appified: Culture in the Age of Apps, edited by J. Morris and S. Murray. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Hestres, Luis E. 2013. “App Neutrality: Apple’s App Store and Freedom of Expression Online.” International Journal of Communication 7: 1265-1280.

Humphreys, Sal and Melissa deZwart. 2012. “Griefing, Massacres, Discrimination, and Art: The Limits of Overlapping Rule Sets in Online Games.” UC Irvine Law Review 2: 507-536.

Marwick, Alice E. 2008. “To Catch a Predator? The MySpace Moral Panic.” First Monday 13(6).

Wohn, Donghee Yvette. 2019. “Volunteer Moderators in Twitch Micro Communities: How They Get Involved, the Roles They Play, and the Emotional Labor They Experience.” Pp. 1-13 in Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Glasgow, Scotland: ACM Press.

Zeng, Jing, Chung-hong Chan, and King-wa Fu. 2017. “How Social Media Construct ‘Truth’ Around Crisis Events: Weibo’s Rumor Management Strategies After the 2015 Tianjin Blasts.” Policy & Internet 9(3): 297-320.

E2. Moderation in comment spaces

Braun, Joshua and Tarleton Gillespie. 2011. “Hosting the Public Discourse, Hosting the Public: When Online News and Social Media Converge.” Journalism Practice 5(4): 383-398.

Frischlich, Lena, Svenja Boberg, and Thorsten Quandt. 2019. “Comment Sections as Targets of Dark Participation? Journalists’ Evaluation and Moderation of Deviant User Comments.” Journalism Studies 1-20.

Kim, Jenny. 2017. “Moderating the Uncontrollable.” Intersect: The Stanford Journal of Science, Technology, and Society 10(3): 9.

Peacock, Cynthia, Joshua M. Scacco, and Natalie Jomini Stroud. 2019. “The Deliberative Influence of Comment Section Structure.” Journalism 20(6): 752-771.

Reagle, Joseph. 2015. Reading the Comments: Likers, Haters, and Manipulators at the Bottom of the Web. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Watson, Brendan R., Zhao Peng, and Seth C. Lewis. 2019. “Who Will Intervene to Save News Comments? Deviance and Social Control in Communities of News Commenters.” New Media & Society 21(8): 1840-1858.

E3. Moderation beyond platforms

Davies, Rodrigo. 2015. “Three Provocations for Civic Crowdfunding.” Information, Communication & Society 18(3): 342-355.

Donovan, Joan, Becca Lewis, and Brian Friedberg. 2018. “Parallel Ports. Sociotechnical Change from the Alt-Right to Alt-Tech.” Pp. 49-66 in Post-Digital Cultures of the Far Right, edited by M. Fielitz and N. Thurston. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag.

Kuerbis, Brenden, Ishan Mehta, and Milton Mueller. 2017. “In Search of Amoral Registrars: Content Regulation and Domain Name Policy.”

Levy, Karen and Solon Barocas. n.d. “Designing Against Discrimination in Online Markets.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 32: 1183-1237.

McQuire, Scott. 2019. “One Map to Rule Them All? Google Maps as Digital Technical Object.” Communication and the Public 4(2): 150-165.

Plantin, Jean-Christophe and Aswin Punathambekar. 2019. “Digital Media Infrastructures: Pipes, Platforms, and Politics.” Media, Culture & Society 41(2): 163-174.

Tusikov, Natasha. 2019. “Defunding Hate: PayPal’s Regulation of Hate Groups.” Surveillance & Society 17(1/2): 46-53.

F. content moderation and the law

F1. Section 230 and U.S. law

Aufderheide, Patricia. 1999. Communications Policy and the Public Interest: The Telecommunications Act of 1996. New York: The Guilford Press.

Bankston, Kevin, David Sohn, and Andrew McDiarmid. 2012. Shielding the Messengers: Protecting Platforms for Expression and Innovation. Center for Democracy and Technology.

Cannon, Robert. 1996. “The Legislative History of Senator Exon’s Communications Decency Act: Regulating Barbarians on the Information Superhighway.” Federal Communications Law Journal 49(1): 51-94.

Citron, Danielle and Quinta Jurecic. 2018. Platform Justice: Content Moderation at an Inflection Point. 1811.

Citron, Danielle Keats. 2018a. “Extremist Speech, Compelled Conformity, and Censorship Creep.” Notre Dame Law Review 93: 1038-1071.

Citron, Danielle Keats. 2018b. “Section 230’s Challenge to Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (Response to Olivier Sylvain, ‘Discriminatory Designs on User Data’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, April 6, 11.

Citron, Danielle Keats and Benjamin Wittes. 2017. “The Internet Will Not Break: Denying Bad Samaritans §230 Immunity.” Fordham Law Review 86:24.

Citron, Danielle Keats and Benjamin Wittes. 2018. “The Problem Isn’t Just Backpage: Revising Section 230 Immunity.” Georgetown Law and Technology Review 2: 453-473.

Coche, Eugénie. 2018. “Privatised Enforcement and the Right to Freedom of Expression in a World Confronted with Terrorism Propaganda Online.” Internet Policy Review 7(4): 1-17.

Donahoe, Eileen and Fen Olser Hampson. 2018. Governance Innovation for a Connected World: Protecting Free Expression, Diversity and Civic Engagement in the Global Digital Ecosystem. Center for International Governance Innovation, Stanford University.

Frosio, Giancarlo F. 2017. “Why Keep a Dog and Bark Yourself? From Intermediary Liability to Responsibility.” Oxford International Journal of Law and Information Technology 25: 1-38.

Frosio, Giancarlo and Martin Husovec. 2019. “Accountability and Responsibility of Online Intermediaries.” Pp. 1-17 in The Oxford Handbook of Online Intermediary Liability, edited by G. F. Frosio. Oxford University Press.

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2018. “Platforms Are Not Intermediaries.” Georgetown Law and Technology Review 2: 198-216.

Goldman, Eric. 2017. “The Ten Most Important Section 230 Rulings.” Tulane Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property 20: 1-10.

Goldman, Eric. 2019. “An Overview of the United States’ Section 230 Internet Immunity.” in The Oxford Handbook of Online Intermediary Liability, edited by G. Frosio. Oxford University Press.

Grimmelmann, James. 2018. “To Err Is Platform (Response to Olivier Sylvain, ‘Discriminatory Designs on User Data’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, April 6.

Jamie, Williams. 2019. “Cavalier Bot Regulation and the First Amendment’s Threat Model.” Knight First Amendment Institute.

Keller, Daphne. 2017. “SESTA and the Teachings of Intermediary Liability.”

Keller, Daphne. 2018. “Toward a Clearer Conversation About Platform Liability (Response to Olivier Sylvain, ‘Discriminatory Designs on User Data’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, April 6, 16.

Kosseff, Jeff. 2016. “The Gradual Erosion of the Law That Shaped the Internet: Section 230’s Evolution over Two Decades.” The Columbia Science & Technology Law Review 18: 1-41.

Kosseff, Jeff. 2017. “Twenty Years of Intermediary Immunity: The US Experience.” SCRIPTed 14(1): 5-36.

Kreimer, Seth F. 2006. “Censorship by Proxy: The First Amendment, Internet Intermediaries, and the Problem of the Weakest Link.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 155(1): 11-101.

Lavi, Michal. 2017. “Taking Out of Context.” Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 31(1): 71.

MacKinnon, Rebecca, Elonnai Hickok, Allon Bar, and Hai-in Lim. 2014. Fostering Freedom Online: The Roles, Challenges and Obstacles of Internet Intermediaries. United Nations Educational.

Mansell, Robin. 2015. “The Public’s Interest in Intermediaries.” Info 17(6): 8-18.

Medeiros, Ben. 2017. “Platform (Non-) Intervention and the ‘Marketplace’ Paradigm for Speech Regulation.” Social Media + Society 3(1): 2056305117691997.

Rappaport, Kim. 1997. “In the Wake of Reno v. ACLU: The Continued Struggle in Western Constitutional Democracies with Internet Censorship and Freedom of Speech Online.” American University International Law Review 13(3): 727.

Reidenberg, Joel R., Jamela Debelak, Jordan Kovnot, and Tiffany Miao. 2012. Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act: A Survey of the Legal Literature and Reform Proposals. Center on Law and Information Policy, Fordham Law.

Schorr, Joanna. 2013. “Malicious Content on the Internet: Narrowing Immunity under the Communications Decency Act.” St. John’s Law Review 87(2):733-62.

Skorup, Brent and Jennifer Huddleston. 2019. The Erosion of Publisher Liability in American Law, Section 230, and the Future of Online Curation. Mercatus Center, George Mason University.

Sylvain, Olivier. 2017. “Intermediary Design Duties.” Connecticut Law Review 50(1):1-75.

Sylvain, Olivier. 2018. “Discriminatory Designs on User Data.” Knight First Amendment Institute, April 1, 22.

Tushnet, Rebecca. 2008. “Power without Responsibility: Intermediaries and the First Amendment.” George Washington Law Review 76(4):986-1016.

Wu, Felix T. 2011. “Collateral Censorship and the Limits of Internediary Immunity.” Notre Dame Law Review 87(1):293-349.

Yar, Majid. 2018. “A Failure to Regulate? The Demands and Dilemmas of Tackling Illegal Content and Behaviour on Social Media.” International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime 1(1):5-20.

Zittrain, Jonathan. 2017. “CDA 230 Then and Now: Does Intermediary Immunity Keep the Rest of Us Healthy?” The Recorder, 5.

F2. Content moderation and the First Amendment

Ammori, Marvin. 2014. “The ‘New’ New York Times: Free Speech Lawyering in the Age of Google and Twitter.” Harvard Law Review 127(8):2259.

Balkin, Jack M. 2014. “Old School / New School Speech Regulation.” Harvard Law Review 127(8):2296-2342.

Croeser, Sky. 2016. “Thinking Beyond ‘Free Speech’ in Responding to Online Harassment.” Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology (10).

Franks, Mary Anne. 2019. “The Free Speech Black Hole: Can The Internet Escape the Gravitational Pull of the First Amendment.” Knight First Amendment Institute.

Goldman, Eric. 2010. Unregulating Online Harassment. 10-02. Santa Clara University School of Law.

Goldman, Eric. 2012. “Online User Account Termination and 47 USC Sec. 230 (c)(2).” UC Irvine Law Review 2:659-73.

Harawa, Daniel S. 2014. “Social Media Thoughtcrimes.” Pace Law Review 35:366-97.

Heins, Marjorie. 2013. “The Brave New World of Social Media Censorship.” Harvard Law Review Forum 127(8):325-30.

Klang, Mathias. 2014. “The Rise and Fall of Freedom of Online Expression.” Pp. 505-13 in The Cambridge handbook of human dignity: interdisciplinary perspectives, edited by M. Düwell, J. Braarvig, R. Brownsword, and D. Mieth. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

MacKinnon, Rebecca. 2012. Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom. New York: Basic Books.

Nunziato, Dawn Carla. 2019. “The Marketplace of Ideas Online.” Notre Dame Law Review 94:1519-84.

Pasquale, Frank A. 2016. “Platform Neutrality: Enhancing Freedom of Expression in Spheres of Private Power.” Theoretical Inquiries in Law, Forthcoming 17(2):487-513.

Wu, Tim. 2010. Is Filtering Censorship? The Second Free Speech Tradition. Brookings Institution.

Zuckerman, Ethan. 2010. “Intermediary Censorship.” Pp. 71-85 in Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power, Rights, and Rule in Cyberspace, edited by R. Diebert, J. G. Palfrey, R. Rohozinski, and J. Zittrain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

F2b. the Knight debates

Klonick, Kate. 2018. “Facebook v. Sullivan.” Knight First Amendment Institute, October 1, 19.

Pozen, David. 2018a. “Intermediary Immunity and Discriminatory Designs (Introduction to Olivier Sylvain, ‘Discriminatory Designs on User Data’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, April 6.

Armijo, Enrique. 2018. “Meet the New Governors, Same as the Old Governors (Response to Kate Klonick, ‘Facebook v. Sullivan’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, October 30, 9.

Balkin, Jack M. 2018. “Free Speech Is a Triangle (Response to Kate Klonick, ‘Facebook v. Sullivan’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, October 1, 54.

Gajda, Amy. 2018. “Newsworthiness and the Search for Norms (Response to Kate Klonick, ‘Facebook v. Sullivan’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, October 30, 8.

Haan, Sarah. 2018. “Profits v. Principles (in Response to Kate Klonick, ‘Facebook v. Sullivan’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, October 30.

Sylvain, Olivier. 2018. “Discriminatory Designs on User Data.” Knight First Amendment Institute, April 1, 22.

Citron, Danielle Keats. 2018. “Section 230’s Challenge to Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (Response to Olivier Sylvain, ‘Discriminatory Designs on User Data’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, April 6, 11.

Grimmelmann, James. 2018. “To Err Is Platform (Response to Olivier Sylvain, ‘Discriminatory Designs on User Data’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, April 6.

Keller, Daphne. 2018. “Toward a Clearer Conversation About Platform Liability (Response to Olivier Sylvain, ‘Discriminatory Designs on User Data’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, April 6, 16.

Whitney, Heather. 2018. “Search Engines, Social Media, and the Editorial Analogy.” Knight First Amendment Institute, February 27.

Goldman, Eric. 2018. “Of Course the First Amendment Protects Google and Facebook (and It’s Not a Close Question) (Response to Heather Whitney, ‘Search Engines, Social Media, and the Editorial Analogy’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, February 26.

Lakier, Genevieve. 2018. “The Problem Isn’t the Use of Analogies but the Analogies Courts Use (Response to Heather Whitney, ‘Search Engines, Social Media, and the Editorial Analogy’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, February 26.

Pasquale, Frank. 2018. “Preventing a Posthuman Law of Freedom of Expression (Response to Heather Whitney, ‘Search Engines, Social Media, and the Editorial Analogy’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, February 26.

Pozen, David. 2018b. “Straining (Analogies) to Make Sense of the First Amendment in Cyberspace (Response to Heather Whitney, ‘Search Engines, Social Media, and the Editorial Analogy’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, February 26.

Wu, Tim. 2017. “Is the First Amendment Obsolete?” Knight First Amendment Institute, September 1, 29.

Stone, Geoffrey. 2017. “Reflections on Whether the First Amendment Is Obsolete (Response to Tim Wu, ‘Is the First Amendment Obsolete?’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, November 1.

Tushnet, Rebecca. 2017. “Not Waving but Drowning: Saving the Audience from the Floods (Response to Tim Wu, ‘Is the First Amendment Obsolete?’).” Knight First Amendment Institute, November 1.

F3. International regulatory frameworks

2015. The Manila Principles on Intermediary Liability: Background Paper.

Douek, Evelyn. 2020. “Australia’s ‘Abhorrent Violent Material’ Law: Shouting ‘Nerd Harder’ and Drowning Out Speech.” Australian Law Journal.

Frosio, Giancarlo. 2017a. “Reforming Intermediary Liability in the Platform Economy: A European Digital Single Market Strategy.” Northwestern University Law Review` 112:19-46.

Frosio, Giancarlo. 2017b. “The Death of ‘No Monitoring Obligations’: A Story of Untameable Monsters.” Journal of Intellectual Property, Information Technology and E-Commerce Law 8(3).

Heldt, Amélie. 2019. “Reading between the Lines and the Numbers: An Analysis of the First NetzDG ReportsReading between the Lines and the Numbers: An Analysis of the First NetzDG Reports.” Internet Policy Review 8(2):1-18.

Heldt, Amélie Pia. 2018. “Taking Speech Regulation Slightly: The NetzDG Reports.”

Kaye, David. 2017. “How Europe’s New Internet Laws Threaten Freedom of Expression.” Foreign Affairs 3.

Keller, Daphne. 2017. “The Right Tools: Europe’s Intermediary Liability Laws and the 2016 General Data Protection Regulation.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 33(1):287-364.

Palfrey, John. 2010. “Four Phases of Internet Regulation.” Social Research 77(3):981-996.

Schulz, Wolfgang. forthcoming. “Regulating Intermediaries to Protect Privacy Online – the Case of the German NetzDG.” P. 15 in Personality and Data Protection Rights on the Internet, edited by M. Albers and I. Sarlet.

Tusikov, Natasha. 2016. Chokepoints: Global Private Regulation on the Internet. Oakland: University of California Press.

Zuckerman, Ethan. 2010. “Intermediary Censorship.” Pp. 71-85 in Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power, Rights, and Rule in Cyberspace, edited by R. Diebert, J. G. Palfrey, R. Rohozinski, and J. Zittrain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

F4. Authoritarian state censorshiop of platforms

Akbari, Azadeh and Rashid Gabdulhakov. 2019. “Platform Surveillance and Resistance in Iran and Russia: The Case of Telegram.” Surveillance & Society 17(1/2):223-31.

Cunningham, Stuart, David Craig, and Junyi Lv. 2019. “China’s Livestreaming Industry: Platforms, Politics, and Precarity.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 22(6):719-36.

Feng, Guangchao Charles and Steve Zhongshi Guo. 2013. “Tracing the Route of China’s Internet Censorship: An Empirical Study.” Telematics and Informatics 30(4):335-45.

Gallagher, Mary and Blake Miller. 2019. “The Logic of China’s Information Control Strategy.” 40.

Hobbs, William and Margaret E. Roberts. 2018. “How Sudden Censorship Can Increase Access to Information.” American Political Science Review 112(3):621-36.

King, Gary, Jennifer Pan, and Margaret E. Roberts. 2013. “How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression.” American Political Science Review 107(02):326-43.

Liao, Qinying, Yingxin Pan, Michelle X. Zhou, and Fei Ma. 2010. “Chinese Online Communities: Balancing Management Control and Individual Autonomy.” P. 2193 in Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Human factors in computing systems – CHI ’10. Atlanta, Georgia, USA: ACM Press.

Miller, Blake. 2019. The Limits of Commercialized Censorship in China. preprint. SocArXiv.

Ruan, Lotus, Jeffrey Knockel, Jason Ng, and Masashi Crete-Nishihata. 2016. One App, Two Systems: How WeChat Uses One Censorship Policy in China and Another Internationally. The Citizen Lab, Munk School of Global Affairs & Public Policy, University of Toronto.

Wijeratne, Yudhanjaya. 2018. The Control of Hate Speech on Social Media: Lessons from Sri Lanka. CPR South.

Yang, Fan. 2016. “Rethinking China’s Internet Censorship: The Practice of Recoding and the Politics of Visibility.” New Media & Society 18(7):1364-81.

F5. moderation vs preservation / evidence

Al Jaloud, Abdul Rahman, Hadi Al Khatib, Jeff Deutch, Dia Kayyali, and Jillian C. York. 2019. Caught in the Net: The Impact of “Extremist” Speech Regulations on Human Rights Content. Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Aronson, Jay and Carnegie Mellon University. 2017. “Preserving Human Rights Media for Justice, Accountability, and Historical Clarification.” Genocide Studies and Prevention 11(1):82-99.

G. Next steps

G1. Success stories?

Centivany, Alissa. 2016. “Values, Ethics and Participatory Policymaking in Online Communities.” Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology 53(1):1-10.

Kiene, Charles, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, and Benjamin Mako Hill. 2016. “Surviving an ‘Eternal September’: How an Online Community Managed a Surge of Newcomers.” Pp. 1152-56 in Proceedings of the 34th Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM Press.

Lingel, Jessa. 2017. “What Facebook Can Learn From Craigslist.” Slate, July 3.

Pater, Jessica Annette, Yacin Nadji, Elizabeth D. Mynatt, and Amy S. Bruckman. 2014. “Just Awful Enough: The Functional Dysfunction of the Something Awful Forums.” Pp. 2407-10 in Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: ACM Press.

G2. Proposals and alternatives

Ash, Timothy Garton, Robert Gorwa, and Danaë Metaxa. 2019. Glasnost! Nine Ways Facebook Can Make Itself a Better Forum for Free Speech and Democracy. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

Balkin, Jack M. 2016. “Information Fiduciaries and the First Amendment.” UC Davis Law Review 49(4):1183-1234.

Bambauer, Derek E. 2018. “From Platforms to Springboards.” Georgetown Law and Technology Review 2:417-31.

Bridy, Annemarie (abridy@uidaho edu). 2018. “Remediating Social Media: A Layer-Conscious Approach.” Boston University Journal of Science and Technology Law 24:193-228.

Bunting, Mark. 2018. “From Editorial Obligation to Procedural Accountability: New Policy Approaches to Online Content in the Era of Information Intermediaries.” Journal of Cyber Policy 3(2):165-86.

Campbell, Angela J. n.d. “Self-Regulation and the Media.” Federal Communications Law Journal 51(3):711-72.

Caplan, Robyn, Lauren Hanson, and Joan Donovan. 2018. Dead Reckoning: Navigating Content Moderation After “Fake News.” Data & Society Research Institute.

Chandrasekharan, Eshwar, Mattia Samory, Anirudh Srinivasan, and Eric Gilbert. 2017. “The Bag of Communities: Identifying Abusive Behavior Online with Preexisting Internet Data.” Pp. 3175-87 in Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Denver, Colorado, USA: ACM Press.

Common, MacKenzie. 2019. “Fear the Reaper: How Content Moderation Rules Are Enforced on Social Media.”

DiResta, Renee. 2018. “The Digital Maginot Line.” Ribbon Farm.

Douek, Evelyn. 2019. “Facebook’s “Oversight Board: ” Move Fast with Stable Infrastructure and Humility.” North Carolina Journal of Law and Technology 21(1).

Eichensehr, Kirsten. 2019. “Digital Switzerlands.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 16:665-732.

Felzmann, Heike, Eduard Fosch Villaronga, Christoph Lutz, and Aurelia Tamò-Larrieux. 2019. “Transparency You Can Trust: Transparency Requirements for Artificial Intelligence between Legal Norms and Contextual Concerns.” Big Data & Society 6(1):1-14.

Flew, Terry. 2018. “Platforms on Trial.” InterMEDIA 46(2):24-29.

Gary, Jeff and Ashkan Soltani. 2019. “First Things First: Online Advertising Practices and Their Effects on Platform Speech.” Knight First Amendment Institute.

Gonzalez, Anna and David Schulz. 2017. “Helping Truth with Its Boots: Accreditation as an Antidote to Fake News.” Yale Law Journal 127:315-36.

Helberger, Natali, Jo Pierson, and Thomas Poell. 2018. “Governing Online Platforms: From Contested to Cooperative Responsibility.” The Information Society 34(1):1-14.

Langvardt, Kyle. 2017. “Regulating Online Content Moderation.” Georgetown Law Journal 106:1353-88.

Lavi, Michal. 2016. “Content Providers’ Secondary Liability: A Social Network Perspective.” Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal 26:855-943.

Mahar, Kaitlin, Amy X. Zhang, and David Karger. 2018. “Squadbox: A Tool to Combat Email Harassment Using Friendsourced Moderation.” Pp. 1-13 in Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Montreal QC, Canada: ACM Press.

Masnick, Mike. 2019. “Protocols, Not Platforms: A Technological Approach to Free Speech.” Knight First Amendment Institute.

McCarthy, Mark. 2019. “A Consumer Protection Approach to Platform Content Moderation.” in Fundamental Rights Protection Online: the Future Regulation of Intermediaries, edited by B. Petkova and M. M.-T. Ojanen. Edward Elgar.

Morar, David. 2019. “Facebook’s Oversight Board: A Toothless Supreme Court?” Internet Governance Project, Georgia Tech School of Public Policy.

Newland, Erica, Caroline Nolan, Cynthia Wong, and Jillian York. 2011. “Account Deactivation and Content Removal: Guiding Principles and Practices for Companies and Users.” Berkman Center Research Publication #2011-09.

Perel (Filmar), Maayan and Niva Elkin-Koren. 2019. “Separation of Functions for AI: Restraining Speech Regulation by Online Platforms.” SSRN Electronic Journal.

Rahman, K. Sabeel. 2018. “Regulating Informational Infrastructure: Internet Platforms as the New Public Utilities.” Georgetown Law and Technology Review 2:18.

Raicu, Irina, Nicolas Suzor, and Sarah T. Roberts. 2018. The Santa Clara Principles: On Transparency and Accountability in Content Moderation.

Rainie, Lee, Janna Anderson, and Jonathan Albright. 2017. The Future of Free Speech, Trolls, Anonymity and Fake News Online. Pew Research Center.