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Digital Divide / Digital Inclusion: A Reading List

The Social Media Collective extended family has compiled a bibliography on the digital divide (including gender gaps) and ICTD. Thanks to all of those who contributed.

last updated: 6.20.16


Allen, Steven G. 2001. “Technology and the Wage Structure.” Journal of Labor Economics 19:440-483.

Anderson, B. 2005. “The value of mixed-method longitudinal panel studies in ICT research.” Information, Communication & Society 8:343-367.

Anderson, Ben. 2008. “The Social Impact of Broadband Household Internet Access.” Information, Communication & Society 11:5-24.

Andrés, Luis, David Cuberes, Mame A. Diouf, and Tomas Serebrisky. 2007. “Diffusion of the Internet: A Cross-Country Analysis.” in World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series: World Bank.

Attewell, Paul. 2001. “The First and Second Digital Divides.”Sociology of Education.74:252-259.

Attewell, Paul, and Juan Battle. 1999. “Home Computers and School Performance.” Information Society 15:1-10.

Autor, David H. 2001. “Wiring the Labor Market.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 15:25-40.

Autor, David H., Lawrence F. Katz, and Alan B. Krueger. 1998. “Computing Inequality: Have Computers Changed the Labor Market?” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 113:1169-1213.

Avgerou, C. (2002) Information Systems and Global Diversity, Oxford, Oxford University Press

Barlow, John Perry. 1996. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” Humanist 56(3):18-19.

Barron, B. 2006. “Interest and Self-Sustained Learning as Catalysts of Development: A Learning Ecology Perspective.” Human Development 49:193-224.

Barzilai-Nahon, Karine. 2006. “Gaps and Bits: Conceptualizing Measurements for Digital Divide/s.” Information Society 22:269-278.

Bennett, Sue, Karl Maton, and Lisa Kervin. 2008. “The ‘Digital Natives’ Debate: A Critical Review of the Evidence.” British Journal of Educational Technology 39:775-786.

Billon, Margarita, Rocio Marco, and Fernando Lera-Lopez. 2009. “Disparities in ICT adoption: A multidimensional approach to study the cross-country digital divide.” Telecommunications Policy 33:596-610.

Bimber, Bruce. 2000. “Measuring the gender gap on the Internet.” Social Science Quarterly 81:868-876.

Boase, Jeffrey, John Horrigan, Barry Wellman, and Lee Rainie. 2006. “The Strength of Internet Ties.” Washington, DC.: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

Boeder, P. (2005) Habermas’ heritage: the future of the public sphere in the network society, First Monday 10(9)

Boneva, Bonka S., Robert Kraut, and David Frohlich. 2001. “Using E-Mail for Personal Relationships: The Difference Gender Makes.” American Behavioral Scientist 45:530-49.

Bonfadelli, Heinz. 2002. “The Internet and Knowldege Gaps: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation.” European Journal of Communication 17:65-84.

boyd, d. 2011. “White Flight in Networked Publics: How Race and Class Shaped American Teen Engagement with MySpace and Facebook.” in Race After the Internet, edited by L. Nakamura and P. Chow-White. New York: Routledge.

Brandtzæg, Petter Bae, Jan Heim, and Amela Karahasanović. 2011. “Understanding the new digital divide—A typology of Internet users in Europe.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 69:123-138.

Brynin, M., B. Anderson, and Y. Raban. 2007. “Introduction.” in Information and Communication Technologies in Society: E-living in a Digital Europe, edited by B. Anderson, M. Brynin, J. Gershung, and Y. Raban. London: Routledge.

Buckingham, David. 2007. “Digital Media Literacies: rethinking media education in the age of the Internet.” Research in Comparative and International Education 2:43-55.

Buente, Wayne, and Alice Robbin. 2008. “Trends in Internet information behavior, 2000–2004.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59:1743-1760.

Burrell, Jenna. 2009. “What Constitutes Good ICTD Research?” Information Technologies & International Development 5 (3): 82–94.

Buskens, I. & Webb, A. (Eds.) (2009) African women and ICTs – Investigating Technology, Gender and Empowerment, Pretoria, Unisa, IDRC, Zed Books

Callon, M. (1991). Techno-economic networks and irreversibility. In J. Law, A sociology of monsters: Essays on power, technology and domination. London: Routledge.

Castells, M. (2000) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture: The Rise of the Network Society, Oxford, Blackwell.

Chapman, R., Slaymaker, T., & Young, J. (2003), Livelihoods Approaches to Information Communication in Support of Rural Poverty Elimination and Food Security, Overseas Development Institute.

Charness, Neil, and Patricia Holley. 2004. “The New Media and Older Adults: Usable and Useful?” American Behavioral Scientist 48:416-433.

Chen, Wenhong, and Barry Wellman. 2005. Minding the Cyber-gap: the Internet and Social Inequality. Boston, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Chou, Wen-ying Sylvia, Yvonne M.  Hunt, Ellen Burke Beckjord, Richard P. Moser, and Bradford W. Hesse. 2009. “Social Media Use in the United States: Implications for Health Communication.” Journal of Medical Internet Research 11:e48.

Compaine, B.M. 2001a. “Information Gaps.” Pp. 105-118 in The Digital Divide: Facing a Crisis or Creating a Myth?, edited by B Compaine. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Compaine, Benjamin M. (Ed.). 2001b. The Digital Divide: Facing a Crisis or Creating a Myth? Campbridge, MA.: MIT Press.

Cook, Thomas D., Hilary Appleton, Ross F. Conner, Ann Shaffer, Gary Tamkin, and Stephen J. Weber. 1975. “Sesame Street” Revisited. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.

Correa, Teresa. 2010. “The Participation Divide Among “Online Experts”: Experience, Skills and Psychological Factors as Predictors of College Students’ Web Content Creation.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 16(1):71-92.

Crenshaw, Edward M., and Kristopher K. Robison. 2006. “Globalization and the Digital Divide: The Roles of Structural Conduciveness and Global Connection in Internet Diffusion.” Social Science Quarterly (Blackwell Publishing Limited) 87:190-207.

Czaja, Sara J., Neil Charness, Arthur D. Fisk, Christopher Hertzog, Sankaran N. Nair, Wendy A. Rogers, and Joseph Sharit. 2006. “Factors predicting the use of technology: Findings from the center for research and education on aging and technology enhancement (create).” Psychology and Aging 21:333-352.

DFID (1999) Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets. London, Department for International Development,

Dholakia, Ruby Roy. 2006. “Gender and IT in the Household: Evolving Patterns of Internet Use in the United States.” Information Society 22:231-240.

DiMaggio, Paul , and Eszter  Hargittai. 2001. “From the ‘Digital Divide’ to `Digital Inequality’: Studying Internet Use As Penetration Increases.” Princeton, NJ: Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies at Princeton University.

DiMaggio, Paul, and Bart Bonikowski. 2008. “Make Money Surfing the Web? The Impact of Internet Use on the Earnings of US Workers.” American Sociological Review 73:227-250.

DiMaggio, Paul, Eszter Hargittai, Coral Celeste, and Steve Shafer. 2004. “Digital Inequality: From Unequal Access to Differentiated Use.” Pp. 355-400 in Social Inequality, edited by Kathryn Neckerman. New York: Russell Sage.

DiMaggio, Paul, Eszter Hargittai, W. Russell. Neuman, and John P. Robinson. 2001. “Social implications of the Internet.” Annual Review of Sociology 27:307-336.

DiNardo, John E., and Jorn-Steffen Pischke. 1997. “The Returns to Computer Use Revisited: Have Pencils Changed the Wage Structure Too?” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 112:291-303.

Donner, Jonathan. After Access. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015.
Donner, Jonathan. 2008. “Research Approaches to Mobile Use in the Developing World: A Review of the Literature.” The Information Society 24 (3): 140–159.

Donner, Jonathan. 2008. The rules of beeping: Exchanging messages via intentional “missed calls” on mobile phones. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13, (1): 1-22.

Drori, Gili S., and Yong Suk Jang. 2003. “The Global Digital Divide: A Sociological Assessment of Trends and Causes.” Social Science Computer Review 21:144-161.

Drori, Gili. S. 2010. “Globalization and Technology Divides: Bifurcation of Policy between the “Digital Divide” and the “Innovation Divide”*.” Sociological Inquiry 80:63-91.

Duncombe R.(2006). Using the livelihoods framework to analyze ICT applications for poverty reduction through microenterprise. Information Technologies and International Development 3(3), 81–100

Dutton, William H., Ellen J. Helsper, and Monica M. Gerber. 2009. “The Internet in Britain 2009.” Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford.

Dutton, William H., Everett M. Rogers, and Suk-Ho Jun. 1987. “Diffusion and Social Impacts of Personal Computers.” Communication Research 14:219-250.

Dutton, William H., Patrick L. Sweet, and Everett M. Rogers. 1989. “Socioeconomic Status and the Early Diffusion of Personal Computing in the United States.” Social Science Computer Review 7:259-271.

Ellison, Nicole B., Charles Steinfeld, and Cliff Lampe. 2007. “The Benefits of Facebook “Friends:” Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12: article 1.

Entorf, Horst, Michel Gollac, and Francis Kramarz. 1999. “New Technologies, Wages, and Worker Selection.” Journal of Labor Economics 17:464-491.

Eshet-Alkalai, Yoram. 2004. “Digital Literacy: a Conceptual Framework for Survival Skills in the Digital Era.” Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 13:93-106.

Ettema, James S., and F. Gerald Kline. 1977. “Deficits, Differences, and Ceilings: Contingent Conditions for Understanding the Knowledge Gap.” Communication Research 4:179-202.

Eurostat. 2008. “Nearly 30% of individuals use internet banking.” Eurostat.

Eurostat. 2009. “One person in two in the EU27 uses the internet daily.” Eurostat.

Eynon, Rebecca. 2009. “Mapping the digital divide in Britain: implications for learning and education.” Learning, Media and Technology 34(4):277-290.

Eynon, Rebecca, and Ellen Helsper. 2011. “Adults Learning Online: Digital Choice and/or Digital Exclusion?” New Media & Society. 13(4):534-51.

Fairlie, Robert W., Daniel O. Beltran, and Kuntal K. Das. 2010. “Home Computers and Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY97 and CPS.” Economic Inquiry 48:771-792.

Floridi, L. (2009) The Information Society and Its Philosophy: Introduction to the Special Issue on “The Philosophy of Information, Its Nature, and Future Developments”, The Information Society, 25, 153-158.

Forestier, Emmanuel, Jeremy Grace, and Charles Kenny. 2002. “Can Information and Communication Technologies Be Pro-poor?” Telecommunications Policy 26 (11) (December): 623–646.

Forman, Chris. 2005. “The Corporate Digital Divide: Determinants of Internet Adoption.” Management Science 51:641-654.

Forman, Chris, Avi Goldfarb, and Shane Greenstein. 2005. “The Geographic Dispersion of Commercial Internet Use.” Pp. 113-145 in Rethinking Rights and Regulations Institutional Responses to New Communications Technologies, edited by Lorrie Faith Cranor and Steven S. Wildman. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Forman, Chris, Avi Goldfarb, and Shane M. Greenstein. 2009. “The Internet and Local Wages: Convergence or Divergence?” in NBER Working Paper Series. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Fountain, Christine. 2005. “Finding a Job in the Internet Age.” Social Forces 83:1235-1262.

Freedom House (2009) Freedom on the Net: a Global Assessment of Internet and Digital Media. Washington, D.C.: Freedom House

Freese, Jeremy, Salvador Rivas, and Eszter Hargittai. 2006. “Cognitive Ability and Internet Use among Older Adults.” Poetics 34:236-249.

Fuchs, Thomas, and Ludger Woessmann. 2004. “Computers and Student Learning: Bivariate and Multivariate Evidence on the Availability and Use of Computers at Home and at School.” in CESifo Working Paper Series No. 1321. Munich: CESifo Group.

Gaziano, Cecilie. 1983. “The Knowledge Gap: An Analytical Review of Media Effects.” Communication Research 10:447-486.

Galperin, Hernan, and Maria Fernanda Viecens. “Connected for Development? Theory and Evidence About the Impact of Internet Technologies on Poverty Alleviation.” SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, February 17, 2014.
Galperin, Hernan, José Ignacio Alvarez-Hamelin, and Maria Fernanda Viecens. “Do Internet Exchange Points Really Matter? Evidence from Bolivia.” SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, September 1, 2014.
Galperin, Hernan. “Wireless Networks and Rural Development: Opportunities for Latin America.” Information Technologies & International Development 2, no. 3 (March 1, 2005): 47–56.
Galperin, Hernan, and Judith Mariscal. Digital Poverty: Latin American and Caribbean Perspectives. IDRC, 2007.

Goodman, Sy. E., Larry I. Press, S. R. Ruth, and A. M. Rutkowski. 1994. “The Global Diffusion of the Internet: Patterns and Problems.” Communications of the ACM 37:27-31.

Graham, M., S. De Sabbata, and M. A. Zook. (2015) “Towards a Study of Information Geographies: (im)mutable Augmentations and a Mapping of the Geographies of Information.” Geo: Geography and Environment, doi:10.1002/geo2.8. (HTML version here)

Graham, M., De Sabbata, S., Zook, M. 2015. Towards a study of information geographies:(im)mutable augmentations and a mapping of the geographies of information Geo: Geography and Environment. doi:10.1002/geo2.8

Graham, M. 2015. Contradictory Connectivity: Spatial Imaginaries and Techno-Mediated Positionalities in Kenya’s Outsourcing Sector. Environment and Planning A (in press).

Graham, M and De Sabbata, S. 2015 Mapping Information Wealth and Poverty: The Geography of Gazetteers. Environment and Planning A (in press).

Graham, M., Hogan, B., Straumann, R. K., and Medhat, A. 2014. Uneven Geographies of User-Generated Information: Patterns of Increasing Informational Poverty. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 104(4). 746-764. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. 2014 Inequitable Distributions in Internet Geographies: The Global South is Gaining Access But Lags in Local Content. innovations 9(3-4). 17-34.

Graham, M. 2014. A Critical Perspective on the Potential of the Internet at the Margins of the Global Economy. In Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. eds. Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 301-318.

Graham, M. and H. Haarstad. 2013. Open Development through Open Consumption: The Internet of Things, User-Generated Content and Economic Transparency. In Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development. eds. Smith, M. L., and Reilly, K. M. A., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 79-111.

Graham, M and M. Zook. 2013. Augmented Realities and Uneven Geographies: Exploring the Geo-linguistic Contours of the Web. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 77-99.

Graham, M. and L. Mann. 2013. Imagining a Silicon Savannah? Technological and Conceptual Connectivity in Kenya’s BPO and Software Development Sectors. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 56(2). 1-19.

Graham, M., S. Hale, and M. Stephens. 2012. Digital Divide: The Geography of Internet Access.Environment and Planning A, 44(5)1009-1010.

Graham, M. and H. Haarstad. 2011. Transparency and Development: Ethical Consumption through Web 2.0 and the Internet of Things. Information Technologies and International Development. 7(1). 1-18.

Graham, M. 2011. Time Machines and Virtual Portals: The Spatialities of the Digital Divide. Progress in Development Studies. 11 (3). 211-227.

Graham, M. 2011. Cultural Brokers, the Internet, and Value Chains. In The Cultural Wealth of Nations. eds. Wherry, F. and N. Bandelj. Standford: Stanford University Press. 222-239.

Graham, M. 2011. Disintermediation, Altered Chains and Altered Geographies: The Internet in the Thai Silk Industry. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 45(5), 1-25

Graham, M. 2010. Justifying Virtual Presence in the Thai Silk Industry: Links Between Data and Discourse. Information Technologies and International Development. 6(4), 57-70.

Graham, M. 2008. Warped Geographies of Development: The Internet and Theories of Economic Development. Geography Compass, 2(3), 771-789.

Greenberg, B., and B. Dervin. 1970. “Mass Communication among the Urban Poor.” Public Opinion Quarterly 34(2):224-235.

Grimshaw, D and Shalini, K. (eds)(2011) Strengthening Rural Livelihoods: The impact of information and communication technologies in Asia, Practical Action Publishing: Rugby

Grusky, David (Ed.). 2008. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Grusky, David B., and Manwai Ku. 2008. “Gloom, Doom, and Inequality.” in Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective, edited by David B. Grusky. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Gui, Marco, and Gianluca Argentin. 2011. “Digital skills of internet natives: Different forms of digital literacy in a random sample of northern Italian high school students.” New Media & Society.

Guillén, Mauro F., and Sandra L. Suárez. 2005. “Explaining the Global Digital Divide: Economic, Political and Sociological Drivers of Cross-National Internet Use.” Social Forces 84:681-708.

Hafkin, N. & Huyer, S. (2007) Women and Gender in Ict Statistics and Indicators for Development. Information Technologies and International Development, 4, 25-41.

Hale, T.M., S.R. Cotten, P. Dremtea, and M. Goldner. 2010. “Rural-Urban Differences in General and Health-Related Internet Use.” American Behavioral Scientist 53:1304-1325.

Halford, Susan, and Mike Savage. 2010. “Reconceptualizing Digital Social Inequality.” Information, Communication & Society 13:937 – 955.

Hampton, Keith N., Lauren F. Sessions, Eun Ja Her, and Lee Rainie. 2009. “Social Isolation and New Technology: How the Internet and Mobile Phones Impact Americans’ Social Networks.” Washington D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

Hampton, Keith N., and Barry Wellman. 2003. “Neighboring in Netville: How the Internet Supports Community and Social Capital in a Wired Suburb.” City and Community 2:277-311.

Hargittai, Eszter. 2002. “Second-Level Digital Divide: Differences in People’s Online Skills.” in First Monday.7(4)

Hargittai, Eszter. 2011. “Open Doors, Closed Spaces? Differentiated Adoption of Social Network Sites by User Background.” in Race after the Internet, edited by P. Chow-White and L. Nakamura: Routledge.

Hargittai, Eszter. 1999. “Weaving the Western Web: explaining differences in Internet connectivity among OECD countries.” Telecommunications Policy 23:701-718.

Hargittai, Eszter. 2003. “How Wide a Web? Inequalities in Accessing Information Online.” in Sociology Department. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.

Hargittai, Eszter. 2008. “The Digital Reproduction of Inequality.” Pp. 936-944 in Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective, edited by David B. Grusky, Manwai Ku, C., and Szonja Szelényi. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hargittai, Eszter. 2010. “Digital Na(t)ives? Variation in Internet Skills and Uses among Members of the “Net Generation”.” Sociological Inquiry 80:92-113.

Hargittai, Eszter, Lindsay Fullerton, Ericka Menchen-Trevino, and Kristin Yates Thomas. 2010. “Trust Online: Young Adults’ Evaluation of Web Content.” International Journal of Communication 4:468-494.

Hargittai, Eszter, and Amanda Hinnant. 2008. “Digital Inequality: Differences in Young Adults’ Use of the Internet.” Communication Research 35:602-621.

Hargittai, Eszter, and Yu-li Patrick Hsieh. 2010. “Predictors and Consequences of Differentiated Practices on Social Network Sites.” Information, Communication & Society 13(4):515-536.

Hargittai, E. & Hsieh, Y.P. (In Press). Digital Inequality. In Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies. Edited by William H. Dutton. Oxford University Press.

Hargittai, Eszter, and Steven Shafer. 2006. “Differences in Actual and Perceived Online Skills: The Role of Gender.” Social Science Quarterly 87:432-448.

Hargittai, Eszter, and Gina Walejko. 2008. “The Participation Divide: Content Creation and Sharing in the Digital Age.” Information, Communication & Society 11:239-256.

Hassani, Sara Nephew. 2006. “Locating Digital Divides at Home, Work, and Everywhere Else.” Poetics 34:250-272.

Haythornthwaite, Caroline, and Ronald E. Rice. 2006. “Perspectives on Internet Use: Access, Involvement and Interaction.” Pp. 92-113 in The Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and Social Consequences of ICTs, edited by Leah A. Lievrouw and Sonia Livingstone. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publication.

Heeks, Richard. 2008. “ICT4D 2.0: The Next Phase of Applying ICT for International Development.” Computer 41 (6): 26–33.

Heeks, Richard. 2002. “Information Systems and Developing Countries: Failure, Success, and Local Improvisations.” The Information Society 18 (2): 101–112.

Helsper, Ellen Johanna. 2010. “Gendered Internet Use across Generations and Life Stages.” Communication Research 37:352-374.

Herring, S. 1996. “Bringing familiar baggage to the new frontier: Gender differences in computer-mediated communication.” Pp. 144-154 in CyberReader, edited by V. Vitanza Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Hoffman, Donna L., and Thomas P. Novak. 1998. “Bridging the Racial Divide on the Internet.” Science 280:390-391.

Horrigan, John B. 2009. “Home Broadband Adoption 2009.” Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

Horst, Heather A. 2006. The Cell Phone: An Anthropology of Communication. Oxford: Berg.

Howard, Philip E. N., L. E. E. Rainie, and Steve Jones. 2001. “Days and Nights on the Internet: The Impact of a Diffusing Technology.” American Behavioral Scientist 45:383-404.

Hsieh, Yuli Patrick, and Eszter Hargittai. 2010. “Social Capital and Communication Multiplexity in Social Relationship Maintenance: An Alternative Theoretical Approach.” in The 105th annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. Atlanta GA.

ITU. 2010. “Measuring the Information Society 2010.” Geneva: International Telecommunication Union.

Jenkins, Henry, Katie Clinton, Ravi Purushotma, Alice J. Robinson, and Margaret Weigel. 2006. Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Chicago, IL: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.

Jensen, Robert. 2009. “The Digital Provide.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 124 (4) (November): 879–924.

Junco, R., and S.R. Cotten. 2011. “Perceived academic effects of instant messaging use.” Computers and Education 56:370-378.

Kadushin, Charles. 2004. “Too Much Investment in Social Capital?” Social Networks 26:75-90.

Katz, James E., and Ronald E. Rice. 2002. “Syntopia: Access, Civic Involvement and Social Interaction on the Internet.” Pp. 114-38 in The Internet in Everyday Life, edited by B. Wellman and C. Haythornthwaite. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Kennedy, T., Wellman, B., & Klement, K. (2003). Gendering the Digital Divide. IT&Society, 1, 72–96. Retrieved from,+Tracy;Wellman,+Barry;Klement,+Kristine\n

Kirschenbaum, Josh, and Radhika Kunamneni. 2001. “Bridging the Organizational Divide: Toward a Comprehensive Approach to the Digital Divide. A PolicyLink Report.” Pp. 34. Oakland, CA: PolicyLink.

Kleine, D. (2010) “‘The men never say that they do not know’ – Telecentres as Gendered Spaces”. In: Steyn, J., van Belle, J.P, and Villanueva, E. (ed.): ICTs for Global Development and Sustainability: Practice and Applications, IGI Global, 189-210

Kleine, D. (2010): ICT4What? Using the Choice Framework to Operationalise the Capability Approach to Development, Journal of International Development, 22(5), 674-692

Kleine, D. and T. Unwin (2009): Technological Revolutions, Evolutions, and New Dependencies: What’s new about ICT4D?, Third World Quarterly, 30(5), 1045-1067

Kraut, Robert, Sara Kiesler, Bonka Boneva, Jonathon Cummings, Vicki Helgeson, and Anne Crawford. 2002. “Internet Paradox Revisited.” Journal of Social Issues 58:49-74.

Kraut, Robert, Michael Patterson, Vicki Lundmark, Sara Kiesler, Mukopadhyay Tridas, and William Scherlis. 1998. “Internet paradox: A Social Technology that Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-being?” American Psychologist 53:1017-1031.

Krueger, Alan B. 1993. “How Computers Have Changed the Wage Structure: Evidence from Microdata, 1984-1989.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108:33-60.

Kubey, R.W, M.J. Lavin, and J.R. Barrows. 2001. “Internet use and collegiate academic performance decrements: early findings.” Journal of Communication 51(2):366-382

LaRose, Robert, Jennifer L. Gregg, Sharon Strover, Joseph Straubhaar, and Serena Carpenter. 2007. “Closing the Rural Broadband Gap: Promoting Adoption of the Internet in Rural America.” Telecommunications Policy 31:359-373.

Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Law, J. (1991) A sociology of monsters: essays on power, technology and domination. London: Routledge

Livingstone, Sonia, and Ellen Helsper. 2007. “Gradations in Digital Inclusion: Children, Young People and the Digital Divide.” New Media & Society 9:671-696.

Livingstone, Sonia, and Ellen Helsper. 2010. “Balancing opportunities and risks in teenagers’ use of the internet: the role of online skills and internet self-efficacy.” New Media & Society 12:309-329.

Loges, William E., and Joo-Young Jung. 2001. “Exploring the Digital Divide: Internet Connectedness and age.” Communication Research 28:536-562.

Min, S.-J. (2010). From the Digital Divide to the Democratic Divide: Internet Skills, Political Interest, and the Second-Level Digital Divide in Political Internet Use. Journal of Information Technology & Politics. doi:10.1080/19331680903109402

Mansell, R. & Wehn, U. (1998) Knowledge Societies: Information Technology for Sustainable Development. Oxford, United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development

McPherson, Miller, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Matthew E. Brashears. 2006. “Social Isolation in America: Changes in Core Discussion Networks over Two Decades.” American Sociological Review 71:353-375.

Menchen-Trevino, Ericka, and Eszter Hargittai. 2011. “Young Adults’ Credibility Assessment of Wikipedia.” Information, Communication & Society.14(1):24-51

Metzger, M. J. 2007. “Making sense of credibility on the Web: Models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58:2078-2091.

Mossberger, Karen, Caroline J. Tolbert, and Mary Stansbury. 2003. Virtual Inequality: Beyond the Digital Divide. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

National Telecommunications and Information Administration. 1995. “Falling through the Net: A Survey of the “Have Nots” in rural and urban America.” Washington DC: US Department of Commerce.

Nemer, D. (2015). Online Favela: The Use of Social Media by the Marginalized in Brazil. Information Technology for Development.

Nemer, D. (2015). From Digital Divide to Digital Inclusion and Beyond. The Journal of Community Informatics, 11(1).

Nemer, D. & Zhang, G. (2015). Empowering the Marginalized: Rethinking Selfies in the Slums of Brazil. International Journal of Communication. 9(2015). 1832–1847.

NTIA. 1998. “Falling Through the Net II: New Data on the Digital Divide.” Washington DC: US Department of Commerce.

NTIA. 1999. “Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide.” Washington DC: US Department of Commerce.

NTIA. 2000. “Falling Through the Net: Toward Digital Inclusion.” Washington DC: US Department of Commerce.

NTIA. 2002. “A Nation Online: Internet Use in America.” Washington DC: US Department of Commerce.

NTIA. 2004. “A Nation Online: Entering the Broadband Age.” Washington DC: US Department of Commerce.

NTIA. 2010. “Digital Nation: 21st Century America’s Progress Towards Universal Broadband Internet Access.” Washington DC: US Department of Commerce.

Nie, Norman, Sunshine Hillygus, and Lutz Erbring. 2002. “Internet Use, Interpersonal Relations and Sociability: A Time Diary Study.” Pp. 244-262 in The Internet in Everyday Life, edited by Barry Wellman and Caroline Haythornthwaite. Oxford: Blackwell.

Norris, Pippa. 2001. Digital Divide? Civic Engagement, Information Poverty & the Internet Worldwide. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Norris, Pippa. 2004. “The Bridging and Bonding Role of Online Communities.” Pp. 31-42 in Society Online: The Interaction in Context, edited by Philip N. Howard and Steve G. Jones. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publication.

Nussbaum, M. (2000) Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

Oakley, P. (Ed.) (2001) Evaluating Empowerment. Reviewing the Concept and the Practice, Oxford, INTRAC

Ono, Hiroshi, and Madeline Zavodny. 2003. “Gender and the Internet.” Social Science Quarterly 84:111-121.

Ono, Hiroshi, and Madeline Zavodny. 2007. “Digital inequality: A five country comparison using microdata.” Social Science Research 36:1135-1155.

Page, Kelly, and Mark Uncles. 2004. “Consumer Knowledge of the World Wide Web: Conceptualization and Measurement.” Psychology & Marketing 21:573-591.

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