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Critical Algorithm Studies: a Reading List

This list is an attempt to collect and categorize a growing critical literature on algorithms as social concerns. The work included spans sociology, anthropology, science and technology studies, geography, communication, media studies, and legal studies, among others. Our interest in assembling this list was to catalog the emergence of “algorithms” as objects of interest for disciplines beyond mathematics, computer science, and software engineering.

As a result, our list does not contain much writing by computer scientists, nor does it cover potentially relevant work on topics such as quantification, rationalization, automation, software more generally, or big data, although these interests are well-represented in these works’ reference sections of the essays themselves.

This area is growing in size and popularity so quickly that many contributions are popping up without reference to work from disciplinary neighbors. One goal for this list is to help nascent scholars of algorithms to identify broader conversations across disciplines and to avoid reinventing the wheel or falling into analytic traps that other scholars have already identified. We also thought it would be useful, especially for those teaching these materials, to try to loosely categorize it. The organization of the list is meant merely as a first-pass, provisional sense-making effort. Within categories the entries are offered in chronological order, to help make sense of these rapid developments.

In light of all of those limitations, we encourage you to see it as an unfinished document, and we welcome comments. These could be recommendations of other work to include, suggestions on how to reclassify a particular entry, or ideas for reorganizing the categories themselves. Please use the comment space at the bottom of the page to offer suggestions and criticism; we will try to update the list in light of these suggestions.

This list is also available as a VISUAL TIMELINE and a public ZOTERO LIBRARY.

Tarleton Gillespie and Nick Seaver

last updated: 7.20.16

 

0. overviews
        0.1 technical and philosophical precursors / emic “what are algorithms?” essays
        0.2 field surveys / keywords / initial provocations
        0.3 books about algorithms addressed to broader audiences
        0.4 conferences focused on algorithms and society
        0.5 lists of algorithm studies resources
        0.6 syllabi that focus on algorithms and society
1. the specific implications of algorithms and the choices they make
        1.1 algorithms have embedded values / biases, lead to personalization / social sorting / discrimination
        1.2 with algorithms come rationalization / automation / quantification, and the erasure of human judgment / complexity / context
        1.3 questions of accountability and policy responses around algorithms
2. algorithms fit with, and help advance, specific ideological worldviews
3. algorithms are complex technical assemblages, that have to be mapped
4. algorithms aren’t just technical artifacts, they’re fundamentally human in their design and their use
        4.1 people design and maintain algorithms, in specific ways, and that matters
        4.2 people work, play, and live with algorithms, in specific ways, and that matters
        4.3 what do users understand about algorithms
        4.4 the discursive production of algorithms to shape their public perception
5. methods and approaches for studying algorithmic systems

 

0. overviews


0.1 technical and philosophical precursors / emic “what are algorithms?” essays

Wangsness, T. and J. Franklin. 1966. “Algorithm” and “formula.” Communications of the ACM 9(4), 243. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/365278.365286

Weizenbaum, Joseph. 1976. Computer power and human reason: From Judgment to Calculation. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co. https://www.scribd.com/doc/174003340/Joseph-Weizenbaum-Computer-Power-and-Human-Reason-From-Judgement-to-Calculation-1976

Kowalski, Robert. 1979. “Algorithm = Logic + Control.” Communications of the ACM 22(7): 424-436. http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~rak/papers/algorithm%20=%20logic%20+%20control.pdf

Hooker, J.N. 1994. “Needed: An Empirical Science of Algorithms.” Operations Research 42(2): 201-212. http://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/pdf/10.1287/opre.42.2.201

Moschovakis, Yiannis N. 2001. “What is an algorithm?” In Mathematics Unlimited — 2001 and beyond. Edited by B. Engquist and W. Schmid. Springer: 919-936. http://www.math.ucla.edu/~ynm/papers/eng.pdf

Blass, Andreas and Gurevich, Yuri. 2003. “Algorithms: A quest for absolute definitions.” Bulletin of European Association for Theoretical Computer Science 81. http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/gurevich/Opera/164.pdf

Gurevich, Yuri. 2014. “What is an Algorithm? (revised)” In Church’s Thesis: Logic, Mind and Nature (eds. A. Olszewski et al.) Copernicus Center Press. http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/gurevich/Opera/209a.pdf

Bullynck, Maarten. 2016. “Histories of algorithms: Past, present and future.” Historia Mathematica, 43(3), 332–341. http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1TNB117f6j-t2L

 


0.2 field surveys / keywords / initial provocations

Goffey, Andrew. 2008. “Algorithm.” In Software Studies: A Lexicon, edited by Matthew Fuller. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Seaver, Nick. 2013. “Knowing Algorithms.” In Media in Transition 8. Cambridge, MA. http://nickseaver.net/s/seaverMiT8.pdf

Barocas, Solon, Sophie Hood, and Malte Ziewitz. 2013. “Governing Algorithms: A Provocation Piece.” http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2245322

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2014. “The Relevance of Algorithms.” In Media Technologies: Essays on Communication, Materiality, and Society, edited by Tarleton Gillespie, Pablo Boczkowski, and Kirsten Foot, 167-194. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://culturedigitally.org/2012/11/the-relevance-of-algorithms/ (draft first published 2012)

Mahnke, Martina and Emma Uprichard. 2014 “Algorithming the Algorithm.” In Society of the Query Reader: Reflections on Web Search. René König and Miriam Rasch, eds. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures. http://networkcultures.org/query/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2014/06/19.Mahnke_Uprichard.pdf

Pasquale, Frank. 2015. The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Striphas, Ted. 2015. “Algorithmic Culture.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 18(4-5): 395-412. http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/18/4-5/395.abstract

Ziewitz, Malte. 2016. “Governing Algorithms: Myth, Mess, and Methods.” Science, Technology & Human Values. 41(1): 3-16. http://sth.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/09/30/0162243915608948.abstract

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2016. “Algorithm.” In Digital Keywords: A Vocabulary of Information Society and Culture, edited by Ben Peters. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. http://culturedigitally.org/2016/08/keyword-algorithm/

Kitchin, Rob. 2017. “Thinking Critically about and Researching Algorithms.” Information, Communication and Society, 20(1). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1154087#abstract

Beer, David. 2017. “The Social Power of Algorithms.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1). forthcoming.

 


0.3 books about algorithms addressed to broader audiences

Steiner, Christopher. 2013. Automate This: How Algorithms Took Over Our Markets, Our Jobs, and the World. Portfolio.

Slavin, Kevin. 2011. “How Algorithms Shape Our World.” TedGlobal 2011 http://www.ted.com/talks/kevin_slavin_how_algorithms_shape_our_world

MacCormick, John, and Chris Bishop. 2013. Nine Algorithms That Changed the Future: The Ingenious Ideas That Drive Today’s Computers. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Cormen, Thomas H. 2013. Algorithms Unlocked. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Dormehl, Luke. 2014. The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems… and Create More. New York, New York: Perigee Books.

Carr, Nicholas. 2015. The Glass Cage: How Our Computers Are Changing Us. W. W. Norton & Company.

Domingos, Pedro. 2015. The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World. New York: Basic Books.

 


0.4 conferences focused on algorithms and society

“Society of the Query #1” (INC, Amsterdam) November 2012 http://networkcultures.org/query/past-events/1-amsterdam/program/

“Society of the Query #2” (INC, Amsterdam) November 2013 http://networkcultures.org/query/

“Governing Algorithms” (NYU) May 2013 http://governingalgorithms.org/

“The Contours of Algorithmic Life” (UC Davis) May 2014 http://algorithmiclife.ucdavis.edu/conference-program/

“Algorithmic Cultures” (Univ. of Konstanz) June 2014 http://www.hsozkult.de/event/id/termine-25222

“Algorithms and Accountability” (NYU) February 2015 http://www.law.nyu.edu/centers/ili/algorithmsconference

“Disciplines, Technologies, and Algorithm” (U Chicago) May 2015 https://arts.uchicago.edu/event/disciplines-technologies-and-algorithms

“Algorithmic Regmies and Generative Strategies” (Vienna) December 2015 http://felix.openflows.com/node/345

“Tyranny of the Algorithm: Predictive Analytics & Human Rights” (NYU) March 2016 http://www.law.nyu.edu/bernstein-institute/conference-2016

“Unlocking the Black Box” (Yale Law) April 2016 http://isp.yale.edu/node/6055

“Data, Cognition and Intelligent Devices” (Centre for Interdisciplinary Methodologies, Warwick, UK) April 2016. http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/cim/research/interrogating-the-dashboard/conference/

“Algorithms in Culture” (UC Berkeley) November 2016 https://sites.google.com/site/algorithmsculture/timeline

 


0.5 lists of algorithm studies resources

“Governing Algorithms” (NYU) reading list: http://governingalgorithms.org/resources/reading-list/

“Algorithm Studies” (UCHRI) literature survey: http://algorithmicstudies.uchri.org/literature-survey

Auditing Algorithms” (ICWSM workshop) background readings: https://auditingalgorithms.wordpress.com/background-readings/

“Algorithm characterizations” Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorithm_characterizations

“The Algorithm Studies Network” resources: http://algorithmnetwork.org/the-algorithm-resource/

 

0.6 syllabi that focus on algorithms and society

“Algorithms and Big Data: Methods and Controversies” (Mike Ananny, USC) http://mike.ananny.org/ananny-asims-algorithmsBigData-syllabus-may29.pdf

“Algorithmic Culture” (Christian Sandvig, University of Michigan) http://www-personal.umich.edu/~csandvig/Algorithmic%20Culture%20–%20Sandvig%20–%20Draft%20Syllabus.pdf

 


1. the specific implications of algorithms and the choices they make

(politics of artifacts / values in design approach)

 


1.1 algorithms have embedded values / biases and lead to personalization / social sorting / discrimination

(concerned about: designer intent vs unaware, how did it get there, where are the effects felt, are they visible to the affected)

Introna, Lucas D., and Helen Nissenbaum. 2000. “Shaping the Web: Why the Politics of Search Engines Matters.” The Information Society 16(3): 169-185. http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/ShapingTheWeb.pdf

Introna, Lucas D., and David Wood. 2004. ‘‘Picturing Algorithmic Surveillance: The Politics of Facial Recognition Systems.’’ Surveillance & Society 2 (2/3): 177-98 http://surveillance-and-society.org/articles2(2)/algorithmic.pdf

Graham, Stephen D. N. 2005. ‘‘Software-sorted Geographies.’’ Progress in Human Geography 29 (5): 562-580. http://www.dourish.com/classes/readings/Graham-SoftwareSortedGeographies-PHG.pdf

Hargittai, Eszter. 2007. The social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions of search engines: An introduction. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(3), 769-777. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00349.x/abstract

Poon, Martha 2007. “Scorecards as devices for consumer credit: the case of Fair, Isaac & Company Incorporated” The Sociological Review. 55(2): 284-306. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2007.00740.x/abstract

Granka, Laura A. 2010. “The Politics of Search: A Decade Retrospective.” The Information Society 26 (5): 364-74. http://www.australianscience.com.au/research/google/36914.pdf

Ananny, Mike. 2011. “The Curious Connection Between Apps for Gay Men and Sex Offenders.” The Atlantic. April 14. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/04/the-curious-connection-between-apps-for-gay-men-and-sex-offenders/237340/

Introna, Lucas D. 2011. “The Enframing of Code: Agency, Originality and the Plagiarist.” Theory, Culture & Society 28 (6): 113-41. http://tcs.sagepub.com/content/28/6/113.abstract

Anderson, Chris W. 2011. “Deliberative, Agonistic, and Algorithmic Audiences: Journalism’s Vision of Its Public in an Age of Audience Transparency.” International Journal of Communication 5: 19. http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/884/537

Lenglet, Marc. 2011. “Conflicting codes and codings: how algorithmic trading is reshaping financial regulation.” Theory, Culture & Society, 28(6), 44-66. http://tcs.sagepub.com/content/28/6/44.abstract

Lipartito, Kenneth. 2011. “The Narrative and the Algorithm: Genres of Credit Reporting from the Nineteenth Century to Today.” http://ssrn.com/abstract=1736283

Anderson, C. W. 2012. “Towards a Sociology of Computational and Algorithmic Journalism.” New Media & Society, 15(7) 1005-1021. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/15/7/1005.abstract

Noble, Safiya. 2012. “Missed Connections: What Search Engines Say about Women. Bitch magazine, 12(4): 37-41. https://safiyaunoble.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/54_search_engines.pdf

Pariser, Eli. 2012. The Filter Bubble: How the New Personalized Web Is Changing What We Read and How We Think. Reprint edition. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

Halfaker, Aaron, Geiger, R. Stuart, Morgan, Jonathan, & Riedl, John. 2012. “The rise and decline of an open collaboration system: How Wikipedia’s reaction to popularity is causing its decline.” American Behavioral Scientist, 0002764212469365. https://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~halfak/publications/The_Rise_and_Decline/halfaker13rise-preprint.pdf

van Dijck, José. 2013. “Facebook and the Engineering of Connectivity: A Multi-Layered Approach to Social Media Platforms.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 19(2): 141-155. http://con.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/09/17/1354856512457548

van Dijck, José. 2013. The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Baker, Paul, and Amanda Potts. 2013. “‘Why Do White People Have Thin Lips?’ Google and the Perpetuation of Stereotypes via Auto-Complete Search Forms.” Critical Discourse Studies 10(2): 187-204. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17405904.2012.744320#.VjkDrK6rTOY

Lenglet, Marc. 2013. “Algorithms and the Manufacture of Financial Reality”. In Harvey, P., Casella, E., Evans, G., Knox, H., McLean, C., Silva, E., Thoburn, N. and Woodward, K. (eds), Objects and Materials. A Routledge Companion. London, Routledge, 312-322. http://www.academia.edu/5575392/Algorithms_and_the_Manufacture_of_Financial_Reality

Cardon, Dominique  and Libbrecht, Liz. 2013. “ Dans l’esprit du PageRank ”, Réseaux 1(177): 63-95. http://www.cairn.info/revue-reseaux-2013-1-page-63.htm

McKelvey, Fenwick. 2014. “Algorithmic Media Need Democratic Methods: Why Publics Matter.” Canadian Journal of Communication 39(4): 597+. http://www.fenwickmckelvey.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/2746-9231-1-PB.pdf

Braverman, Irus. 2014. “Governing the Wild: Databases, Algorithms, and Population Models as Biopolitics.” Surveillance & Society 12(1): 15-37. http://ssrn.com/abstract=2420199

Latzer, Michael, Katharina Hollnbuchner, Natascha Just, and Florian Saurwein. 2014. “The economics of algorithmic selection on the Internet.” Zurich: Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Latzer/publication/267777665_The_economics_of_algorithmic_selection_on_the_Internet/links/545a6a820cf2c46f664300cb.pdf

Pasquale, Frank. 2015. The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Benthall, Sebastian. 2015.“Designing Networked Publics for Communicative Action.” Interface 1(1): 1-30. http://commons.pacificu.edu/interface/vol1/iss1/3/

Crawford, Kate. 2015. “Can an Algorithm Be Agonistic? Ten Scenes from Life in Calculated Publics.” Science, Technology & Human Values. http://sth.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/06/24/0162243915589635.abstract

Tufekci, Zeynep. 2015. “Algorithmic Harms beyond Facebook and Google: Emergent Challenges of Computational Agency” Colorado Technology Law Journal. v13 n2 http://ctlj.colorado.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Tufekci-final.pdf

Bolin, Göran & Jonas Andersson Schwarz 2015. ‘Heuristics of the Algorithm. Big Data, User Interpretation and Translation Strategies’, Big Data & Society, July-Dec 2015: 1-12. http://bds.sagepub.com/content/2/2/2053951715608406

Greenfield, Adam. 2015. “Uber, or: The technics and politics of socially corrosive mobility.” Adam Greenfield’s Speedbird. June 29. https://speedbird.wordpress.com/2015/06/29/uber-or-the-technics-and-politics-of-socially-corrosive-mobility/

Lustig, Caitlin, and Nardi, Bonnie. 2015. “Algorithmic Authority: The Case of Bitcoin.” 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 743-752. http://www.artifex.org/~bonnie/lustig_nardi_HICSS_2015.pdf

Kennedy, Eric Brian. 2015. Voting by Quiz: Online Algorithms and Election Education. Engaging Science, Technology, and Society, 1, 73–78. http://estsjournal.org/article/download/27/15

Milan, Stefania. 2015. “When Algorithms Shape Collective Action: Social Media and the Dynamics of Cloud Protesting.” Social Media & Society, 1(2). http://sms.sagepub.com/content/1/2/2056305115622481.full

Dörr, Konstantin. 2015. “Mapping the field of Algorithmic Journalism.” Digital Journalism, forthcoming http://www.mediachange.ch/media//pdf/publications/MAPPING_THE_FIELD_OF_ALGORITHMIC_JOURNALISM_DoerrK_.pdf

Nahon, Karine. 2016, “Where there is Social Media, there is Politics”, in Bruns A., Skogerbo E., Christensen C., Larsson O.A. and Enli G.S., eds. Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics. New York: Routledge: 39-55. http://ekarine.org/wp-admin/pub/Nahon_PoliticsSM.pdf

DeVito, Michael. 2016. “From Editors to Algorithms: A values-based approach to understanding story selection in the Facebook news feed.” Digital Journalism, forthcoming http://socialmedia.northwestern.edu/files/2016/05/E2A_DJ_PREPRINT.pdf

Noble, Safiya. [forthcoming, 2016] Algorithms of Oppression: Race, Gender and Power in the Digital Age. New York: NYU Press.

Williamson, Ben. 2017. “Computing Brains: Learning Algorithms and Neurocomputation in the smart city.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1181194#abstract

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2017. “Algorithmically recognizable: Santorum’s Google problem, and Google’s Santorum problem.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1199721#abstract

 


1.2 with algorithms come rationalization / automation / quantification, and the erasure of human judgment / complexity / context

Dutton, William H., & Kraemer, Kenneth. 1980. “Automating bias.” Society, 17(2), 36–41.

Helmreich, Stefan. 1998. “Recombination, Rationality, Reductionism and Romantic Reactions: Culture, Computers, and the Genetic Algorithm.” Social Studies of Science 28(1): 39-71. http://sss.sagepub.com/content/28/1/39.short

Thrift, Nigel, and Shaun French. 2002. “The Automatic Production of Space.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 27(3): 309-335. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-5661.00057/abstract

Graham, Stephen, & Wood, David. 2003. Digitizing surveillance: categorization, space, inequality. Critical Social Policy, 23(2), 227-248. http://csp.sagepub.com/content/23/2/227.abstract

Pasquinelli, Matteo. 2009. “Google’s PageRank algorithm: a diagram of cognitive capitalism and the rentier of the common intellect” in Deep Search: The Politics of Search beyond Google. London: Transaction Publishers. http://matteopasquinelli.com/google-pagerank-algorithm/

Nakamura, Lisa. 2009. “The socioalgorithmics of race: sorting it out in Jihad worlds.” In Shoshana Magnet & Kelly Gates, eds., The New Media of Surveillance. Abingdon: Routledge: 149-162. https://lnakamur.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/nakamura-jihad-worlds.pdf

Wilf, Eitan. 2013. “Toward an Anthropology of Computer-Mediated, Algorithmic Forms of Sociality.” Current Anthropology 54(6): 716-739. http://pluto.mscc.huji.ac.il/~ewilf/Wilf%20-%20Current%20Anthropology.pdf

Kockelman, Paul. 2013. “The anthropology of an equation. Sieves, spam filters, agentive algorithms, and ontologies of transformation.” Hau 3(3). http://www.haujournal.org/index.php/hau/article/view/hau3.3.003

Wilf, Eitan. 2013. “From Media Technologies That Reproduce Seconds to Media Technologies That Reproduce Thirds: A Peircean Perspective on Stylistic Fidelity and Style-Reproducing Computerized Algorithms.” Signs and Society, 1(2), 185–211. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/671751

Grosser, Benjamin. 2014. “What Do Metrics Want? How Quantification Prescribes Social Interaction on Facebook.” Computational Culture. http://computationalculture.net/article/what-do-metrics-want

Napoli, Philip M. 2014. “On Automation in Media Industries: Integrating Algorithmic Media Production into Media Industries Scholarship.” Media Industries 1(1). http://www.mediaindustriesjournal.org/index.php/mij/article/view/14

Kockelman, Paul. 2014. “Linguistic anthropology in the age of language automata.” The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge University Press, 708-733. http://www.envorganism.org/Article%20PDFs/Chapter%2025,%20CHLA.pdf

Reigeluth, Tyler. 2014. Why data is not enough: Digital traces as control of self and self-control, Surveillance & Society 12(2): 243-254. http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/enough

Seaver, Nick. 2015.  “Bastard algebra.” In Tom Boelstorff and Bill Maurer, eds.,  Data, Now Bigger and Better! Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. https://socialmediacollective.files.wordpress.com/2015/11/4114c-seaver-bastardalgebra.pdf

Karppi, Tero, and Crawford, Kate. 2015. “Social Media, Financial Algorithms and the Hack Crash.” Theory, Culture & Society. http://tcs.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/05/04/0263276415583139.abstract

McQuillan, Daniel. 2015. “Algorithmic States of Exception.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 18(4/5). http://research.gold.ac.uk/11079/

Introna, Lucas. 2015. “Algorithms, Governance, and Governmentality: On Governing Academic Writing.” Science, Technology & Human Values. http://sth.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/06/02/0162243915587360.abstract

Neyland, Daniel. 2015. “On Organizing Algorithms.” Theory, Culture & Society 32(1): 119-132. http://tcs.sagepub.com/content/32/1/119

Pasquale, Frank. 2015. “The Algorithmic Self.” 17(1) The Hedgehog Review. http://www.iasc-culture.org/THR/THR_article_2015_Spring_Pasquale.php

Fourcade, Marion, and Kieran Healy. 2015. “Seeing Like a Market.” http://kieranhealy.org/publications/slam/

Owen, Taylor. 2015. “The Violence of Algorithms.” Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2015-05-25/violence-algorithms

Williamson, Ben. 2015. “Governing software: networks, databases and algorithmic power in the digital governance of public education.” Learning, Media and Technology 40(1): 83-105. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17439884.2014.924527</span

Cheney-Lippold, John (2016). Jus Algoritmi: How the National Security Agency Remade Citizenship. International Journal of Communication, 10, 22. http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/4480/1618

Just, Natascha and Latzer, Michael. 2016. “Governance by Algorithms: Reality Construction by Algorithmic Selection on the Internet.” Media, Culture & Society, forthcoming. http://mcs.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/04/20/0163443716643157.abstract

Ochigame, Rodrigo and Holston, James. 2016. “Filtering Dissent: Social Media and Land Struggles in Brazil” The New Left Review, 99: May-June. https://newleftreview.org/II/99/rodrigo-ochigame-james-holston-filtering-dissent

 


1.3 questions of accountability and policy responses around algorithms

Pasquale, Frank. 2006. “Rankings, Reductionism, and Responsibility” Cleveland State Law Review, 54:115+. http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/fac_pubs/1351/

Pasquale, Frank. 2006. “Rankings, Reductionism, and Responsibility” Cleveland State Law Review, 54:115+. http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/fac_pubs/1351/

Neyland, D. 2007. “Achieving Transparency: The Visible, Invisible and Divisible in Academic Accountability Networks.” Organization 14 (4): 499–516.

Grimmelmann, James. 2008. “The Google Dilemma.” New York Law School Law Review, 53: 939. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1160320

Kraemer, Felicitas, Kees Overveld, and Martin Peterson. 2010. ‘‘Is There an Ethics of Algorithms?’’ Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3): 251-60.

McKelvey, Fenwick. 2010. “Ends and Ways: The Algorithmic Politics of Network Neutrality.” Global Media Journal: Canadian Edition 3(1): 51-73. http://www.gmj.uottawa.ca/1001/v3i1_mckelvey.pdf

Anderson, Robert, and Sharrock, Wesley. 2013. “Ethical Algorithms: A Brief Comment on an Extensive Muddle.” http://www.sharrockandanderson.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Ethical-Algorithms.pdf

Crawford, Kate, and Jason Schultz. 2014. “Big Data and Due Process: Toward a Framework to Redress Predictive Privacy Harms.” Boston College Law Review, 55(1): 93+. http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3351&context=bclr

Diakopoulos, Nicholas. 2013. ‘‘Algorithmic Accountability Reporting: On the Investigation of Black Boxes.’’ A Tow/Knight Brief. New York: Columbia Journalism School, Tow Center for Digital Journalism. http://www.nickdiakopoulos.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Algorithmic-Accountability-Reporting_final.pdf

O’Reilly, Tim. 2013. ‘‘Open Data and Algorithmic Regulation.’’ In Beyond Transparency: Open Data and the Future of Civic Innovation, edited by Brett Goldstein, 289-300. San Francisco, CA: Code for America Press. http://beyondtransparency.org/chapters/part-5/open-data-and-algorithmic-regulation/

Benjamin, S.M. (2013). “Algorithms and Speech.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 161(6): 1445-1494. http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5758&context=faculty_scholarship

Bozdag, Engin. 2013. ‘‘Bias in Algorithmic Filtering and Personalization.’’ Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3): 209-27.

Hazan, Joshua. (2013). “Stop Being Evil: A Proposal for Unbiased Google Search.” Michigan Law Review 111(5): 789-820. http://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=mlr

Hildebrandt, Mireille and Rouvroy, Antoinette, eds. 2013. Law, Human Agency and Autonomic Computing: The Philosophy of Law Meets the Philosophy of Technology. Abingdon: Routledge.

Citron, Danielle Keats, and Frank A. Pasquale. 2014. “The Scored Society: Due Process for Automated Predictions.” Washington Law Review 89. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2376209

boyd, danah, Karen Levy, and Alice Marwick. 2014. “The Networked Nature of Algorithmic Discrimination.” Open Technology Institute. http://www.danah.org/papers/2014/DataDiscrimination.pdf

Rosenblat, Alex, Kneese, Tamara, and boyd, danah. 2014 “Workshop Primer: Algorithmic Accountability” produced for “The Social, Cultural & Ethical Dimensions of Big Data” March 17, 2014 – New York, NY http://www.datasociety.net/pubs/2014-0317/AlgorithmicAccountabilityPrimer.pdf

Schuppli, Susan. 2014. “Deadly Algorithms: Can legal codes hold software accountable for code that kills?” Radical Philosophy 187: 1-8. https://www.academia.edu/8180918/Deadly_Algorithms_Can_legal_codes_hold_software_accountable_for_code_that_kills

Diakopoulos, Nicholas. 2015. ‘‘Algorithmic Accountability.’’ Digital Journalism 3 (3): 398-415. http://www.nickdiakopoulos.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/algorithmic_accountability_final.pdf

Burrell, Jenna. 2015. “How the Machine ‘Thinks:’ Understanding Opacity in Machine Learning Algorithms.” http://ssrn.com/abstract=2660674

Medina, Eden. 2015. “Rethinking algorithmic regulation”, Kybernetes, Vol. 44(6/7): 1005-1019. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/K-02-2015-0052

Sadowski, Jathan. 2015. “From Mega-Machines to Mega-Algorithms.” The New Inquiry, April 28: http://thenewinquiry.com/essays/from-mega-machines-to-mega-algorithms/

Saurwein, Florian, Just, Natascha, Latzer, Michael. 2015. “Governance of algorithms: options and limitations.” Info, Vol. 17 (6), 35-49. http://www.mediachange.ch/media//pdf/publications/GovernanceOfAlgorithms.pdf

Barocas, Solon, and Andrew D. Selbst. 2016. “Big Data’s Disparate Impact.” California Law Review, 104. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2512208

Zarsky, Tal. 2016. ‘‘The Trouble with Algorithmic Decisions: An Analytic Roadmap to Examine Efficiency and Fairness in Automated and Opaque Decision Making.’’ Science, Technology, & Human Values 41(1). http://sth.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/10/13/0162243915605575.abstract

Luca, Michael, Jon Kleinberg, and Sendhil Mullainathan. 2016. “Algorithms Need Managers Too” Harvard Business Review Jan-Feb: 96-101. https://hbr.org/2016/01/algorithms-need-managers-too</span

Ananny, Mike. 2016. Toward an ethics of algorithms: Convening, observation, probability, and timeliness. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 41(1): 93-117. http://sth.sagepub.com/content/41/1/93

Goodman, Bryce and Flaxman, Seth. 2016. EU regulations on algorithmic decision-making and a “right to explanation” presented at 2016 ICML Workshop on Human Interpretability in Machine Learning (WHI 2016), New York, NY. http://arxiv.org/abs/1606.08813

Yeung, Karen. 2017. “’Hypernudge’: Big Data as a mode of regulation by design.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1).  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1186713#abstract

Gourarie, Chava.2016. “Investigating the algorithms that govern our lives.” Columbia Journalism Review. April 14. http://www.cjr.org/innovations/investigating_algorithms.php

 


2. algorithms fit with, and help advance, specific ideological worldviews

(critical theory approach, including capitalism, surveillance, subject/object)

Deleuze, Gilles. 1992. “Postscript on the Societies of Control.” October 59: 3-7. https://cidadeinseguranca.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/deleuze_control.pdf

Van Couvering, Elizabeth. 2004. “New Media? The Political Economy of Internet Search Engines.” In Annual Conference of the International Association of Media & Communications Researchers, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 25-30. http://www.academia.edu/1047079/New_media_The_political_economy_of_Internet_search_engines

Galloway, Alexander R. 2006. Gaming: Essays On Algorithmic Culture. Minneapolis: University Of Minnesota Press.

Soderman, Braxton. 2007. “The Index and the Algorithm.” differences 18(1): 153–86. http://differences.dukejournals.org/content/18/1/153.full.pdf+html

Beer, David. 2009. “Power through the Algorithm? Participatory Web Cultures and the Technological Unconscious.” New Media & Society 11(6): 985-1002. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/11/6/985.abstract

Golumbia, David. 2009. The Cultural Logic of Computation. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Fuller, Matthew and Goffey, Andrew. 2012. “Algorithms.” In Evil Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press: 69-82

Cheney-Lippold, John. 2011. “A New Algorithmic Identity: Soft Biopolitics and the Modulation of Control.” Theory, Culture & Society 28(6): 164-181. http://www.scribd.com/doc/105663794/A-New-Algorithmic-Identity-Soft-Biopolitcs

Uricchio, William. 2011. “The Algorithmic Turn: Photosynth, Augmented Reality and the Changing Implications of the Image.” Visual Studies 26(1): 25-35.

Mager, Astrid. 2012. “Algorithmic Ideology: How Capitalist Society Shapes Search Engines.” Information, Communication & Society. 15(5) 769-787. https://www.academia.edu/953703/Algorithmic_Ideology._How_Capitalist_Society_Shapes_Search_Engines  

Beer, David. 2013. “Algorithms: Shaping Tastes and Manipulating the Circulations of Popular Culture.” In Popular Culture and New Media: The Politics of Circulation. Palgrave McMillan: 63-100.

Manovich, Lev. 2013. Software Takes Command. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Snake-Beings, Emit. 2013. “From Ideology to Algorithm: the Opaque Politics of the Internet” Transformations: Journal of Media and Culture 23. http://www.academia.edu/4345263/From_Ideology_to_Algorithm._Published_in_Transformations_23_2013

Snider, Laureen. 2014. “Interrogating the Algorithm: Debt, Derivatives and the Social Reconstruction of Stock Market Trading.” Critical Sociology 40(5): 747–61. http://crs.sagepub.com/content/40/5/747.abstract

Kaplan, Frederic. 2014. “Linguistic Capitalism and Algorithmic Mediation.” Representations 127(1), 57-63. http://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/200539/files/Kaplan_Representations.pdf

Totaro, Paolo, and Ninno, Domenico. 2014. “The Concept of Algorithm as an Interpretative Key of Modern Rationality.” Theory, Culture & Society 31 (4): 29-49. http://tcs.sagepub.com/content/31/4/29

Hess, Aaron. 2014. You are what you compute (and what is computed for you): Considerations of digital rhetorical identification. Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric, 4(1/2), 1-18. http://contemporaryrhetoric.com/articles/Hess8_1.pdf

Mager, Astrid. 2014. “Defining Algorithmic Ideology: Using Ideology Critique to Scrutinize Corporate Search Engines.” tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique, 12(1), 28-39. http://www.triple-c.at/index.php/tripleC/article/view/439/641

Mackenzie, Adrian. 2015. “The Production of Prediction: What Does Machine Learning Want?” European Journal of Cultural Studies 18(4/5): 429–45. http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/18/4-5/429.abstract

Scannell, Josh. 2015. “What Can An Algorithm Do?” DIS Magazine http://dismagazine.com/discussion/72975/josh-scannell-what-can-an-algorithm-do/

Uricchio, William. 2015. “Recommended for You: Prediction, Creation and the Cultural Work of Algorithms.” The Berlin Journal, 28: 6-9.

Danaher, John. 2016. “The Threat of Algocracy: Reality, Resistance and Accommodation.” Philosophy & Technology: 1-24 http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13347-015-0211-1

Totaro, Paolo and Domenico Ninno. 2016. “Algorithms and the Practical World.” Theory, Culture & Society 33: 139-152. http://tcs.sagepub.com/content/33/1/139.full.pdf

 


3. algorithms are complex technical assemblages, that have to be mapped

(actor network -ish)

Callon, Michel, and Muniesa, Fabian. 2005. “Economic Markets as Calculative Collective Devices.” Organization Studies, 26(8), 1229-1250. http://www.coi.columbia.edu/ssf/papers/callon-muniesa.pdf

MacKenzie, Donald A. 2006. An Engine, Not a Camera: How Financial Models Shape Markets. Inside Technology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Amoore, Louise. 2009. “Algorithmic War: Everyday Geographies of the War on Terror.” Antipode 41(1): 49–69 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2008.00655.x/abstract

Ziewitz, Malte. 2011. How to think about an algorithm? Notes from a not quite random walk. Discussion paper for Symposium on “Knowledge Machines between Freedom and Control”, 29 September. http://zwtz.org/files/ziewitz_algorithm.pdf

Miyazaki, Shintaro. 2012. “Algorhythmics: Understanding Micro-Temporality in Computational Cultures.” Computational Culture, 2. http://computationalculture.net/article/algorhythmics-understanding-micro-temporality-in-computational-cultures

Helmond, Anne. 2013. “The Algorithmization of the Hyperlink.” Computational Culture 3(3). http://www.annehelmond.nl/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Helmond_2013_CC_AlgorithmizationOfTheHyperlink.pdf

Kushner, Scott. 2013. “The Freelance Translation Machine: Algorithmic Culture and the Invisible Industry.” New Media & Society 15(8): 1241–58. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/15/8/1241

Weltevrede, Esther, Anne Helmond, and Carolin Gerlitz. 2014. “The Politics of Real-Time: A Device Perspective on Social Media Platforms and Search Engines.” Theory, Culture & Society 31 (6): 125–50. http://tcs.sagepub.com/content/31/6/125

Rouvroy, Antoinette and Berns, Thomas. 2013. “ Gouvernementalité algorithmique et perspectives d’émancipation ”, Réseaux 1(177): 163-196. http://www.cairn.info/revue-reseaux-2013-1-page-163.htm

Geiger, R. Stuart. 2014. “Bots, Bespoke, Code and the Materiality of Software Platforms.” Information, Communication & Society 17 (3): 342–56. http://stuartgeiger.com/bespoke-code-ics.pdf

Mackenzie, Donald. 2014. “A Sociology of Algorithms: High-Frequency Trading and the Shaping of Markets” working paper. http://www.maxpo.eu/Downloads/Paper_DonaldMacKenzie.pdf

Muniesa, Fabian. 2014 “Discovering stock prices” in The Provoked Economy: Economic Reality and the Performative Turn. London: Routledge. http://bit.ly/provokedeconomy

Mackenzie, Donald and Spears, Taylor, 2014. “‘The Formula That Killed Wall Street’: The Gaussian Copula and Modeling Practices in Investment Banking,” Social Studies of Science 44: 393-417. pre-print: http://www.sps.ed.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/129947/Formula12.pdf

Rieder, Bernhard. 2015. “What Is in PageRank? A Historical and Conceptual Investigation of a Recursive Status Index.” Computational Culture. http://computationalculture.net/article/what_is_in_pagerank

Mackenzie, Donald. 2015. “How Algorithms Interact: Goffman’s ‘Interaction Order’ in Automated

Trading” Working Paper. http://www.sociology.ed.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/183939/IntOrder16_web.pdf

Orlikowski, Wanda and Scott, Susan. 2015. “The Algorithm and the Crowd: Considering the Materiality of Service Innovation.” MIS Quarterly 39(1) 201-216. http://misq.org/misq/downloads/download/article/1152/  

Neyland, Daniel & Möllers, Norma. 2016 “Algorithmic IF … THEN rules and the conditions and consequences of power,” Information, Communication & Society http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1156141

 


4. algorithms aren’t just technical artifacts, they’re fundamentally human in their design and their use

(social construction of technical systems approach / anthropology and ethnographic instinct)

 


4.1 people design and maintain algorithms, in specific ways, and that matters

Sterne, Jonathan. 2006. “The mp3 as cultural artifact.” New Media & Society. 8(5): 825-842. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/8/5/825.abstract

van Couvering, Elizabeth. 2007. “Is Relevance Relevant? Market, Science, and War: Discourses of Search Engine Quality” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(3), 866-887. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00354.x/abstract

Ensmenger, Nathan. 2012. “Is Chess the Drosophila of Artificial Intelligence? A Social History of an Algorithm.” Social Studies of Science 42(1): 5-30. http://sss.sagepub.com/content/42/1/5

Vaidhyanathan, Siva. 2012. The Googlization of Everything (And Why We Should Worry) Berkeley: UC Press.

Ziewitz, Malte. 2012. “Evaluation as Governance: The Practical Politics of Reviewing, Rating and Ranking on the Web.” PhD Thesis, Oxford: University of Oxford.

Sterne, Jonathan. 2012. MP3: The Meaning of a Format. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Seaver, Nick. 2012. “Algorithmic Recommendations and Synaptic Functions” Limn 1(2). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7g48p7pb

Mackenzie, Adrian. 2013. “Programming Subjects in the Regime of Anticipation: Software Studies and Subjectivity.” Subjectivity 6(4): 391-405. http://www.palgrave-journals.com/sub/journal/v6/n4/abs/sub201312a.html

Diakopolous, Nick. 2013. “Sex, Violence, and Autocomplete Algorithms” Slate. August 2. http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2013/08/words_banned_from_bing_and_google_s_autocomplete_algorithms.html

Hallinan, Blake, and Ted Striphas. 2014. “Recommended for You: The Netflix Prize and the Production of Algorithmic Culture.” New Media & Society, 18(1), 117-137. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/18/1/117

Webmoor, Timothy. 2014. “Algorithmic Alchemy, or the Work of Code in the Age of Computerized Visualization.” In Annamaria Carusi, Aud Sissel Hoel, Timothy Webmoor, and Steve Woolgar, eds., Visualization in the Age of Computerization. 19-39. New York: Routledge.

Bogost, Ian. 2015. ‘‘The Cathedral of Computation.’’ The Atlantic, January 15. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/01/the-cathedral-of-computation/384300/

Cardoso Llach, Daniel. 2015. Builders of the Vision: Software and the Imagination of Design. London, New York: Routledge.

Arnoldi, Jakob. (2016). “Computer Algorithms, Market Manipulation and the Institutionalization of High Frequency Trading.” Theory, Culture & Society, 33(1): 29-52. http://doi.org/10.1177/0263276414566642

 


4.2 people work, play, and live algorithms, in specific ways, and that matters

(mediated cultural practices approach)

Kitchin, Rob and Dodge, Martin. 2011. Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life. MIT Press

Beunza, Daniel and Millo, Yuval. 2015. “Blended automation: integrating algorithms on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange” SRC Discussion Paper No. 38. London School of Economics and Political Science. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/65090/

Ekbia, Hamid and Bonnie Nardi. 2014. “Heteromation and Its (Dis)contents: the Invisible Division of Labor Between Humans and Machines.” First Monday 19(6). http://firstmonday.org/article/view/5331/4090

Aneesh, Aneesh. 2009. “Global Labor: Algocratic Modes of Organization*.” Sociological Theory 27 (4). Wiley Online Library: 347–70. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9558.2009.01352.x/abstract

Geiger, R. Stuart. 2011. “The Lives of Bots.” In Wikipedia: A Critical Point of View. Geert Lovink and Nathaniel Tkacz, eds. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures. http://www.stuartgeiger.com/lives-of-bots-wikipedia-cpov.pdf

Bucher, Taina. 2012. “Want to Be on the Top? Algorithmic Power and the Threat of Invisibility on Facebook.” New Media & Society 14 (7): 1164–80. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/04/04/1461444812440159.abstract

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2012. “Can an Algorithm Be Wrong?” Limn 1(2). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0jk9k4hj

van Dalen, Arjen. 2012. “The Algorithms behind the Headlines: How machine-written news redefines the core skills of human journalists.” Journalism Practice 6(5-6), 648-658. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17512786.2012.667268

Schüll, Natasha Dow. 2014. Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas. Reprint edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Carah, Nicholas 2015. “Algorithmic brands: A decade of brand experiments with mobile and social media” New Media & Society. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/09/10/1461444815605463.abstract

Ananny, Mike & Crawford, Kate. 2015. A liminal press: Situating news app designers within a field of networked news production. Digital Journalism, 3(2), 192-208. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21670811.2014.922322

Lee, Min Kyung, Kusbit, Daniel, Metsky, Evan and Dabbish, Laura. 2015. “Working with Machines: The Impact of Algorithmic and Data-Driven Management on Human Workers” CHI ’15 Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: 1603-1612 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2702548

Applin, Sally and Michael Fischer. 2015. “New Technologies and Mixed-Use Convergence: How Humans and Algorithms are Adapting to Each Other.” In IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS 2015). 11 Nov, Dublin, Ireland. http://posr.org/w/images/b/b5/Applin_Fischer_IEEE_ISTAS_2015_PREPUB_DRAFT.pdf

Carlson, Matt. 2015. “The Robotic Reporter: Automated journalism and the redefinition of labor, compositional forms, and journalistic authority.” Digital Journalism 3(3): 416-431. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21670811.2014.976412#abstract

Rossiter, Ned and Zehle, Soenke. 2015. “The Aesthetics of Algorithmic Experience.” In Randy Martin, ed., The Routledge Companion to Art and Politics, New York: Routledge. http://nedrossiter.org/?p=436

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2016. “#trendingistrending:when algorithms become culture” forthcoming in Algorithmic Cultures: Essays on Meaning, Performance and New Technologies, Robert Seyfert and Jonathan Roberge, eds. Routledge. http://culturedigitally.org/2016/02/trendingistrending/

Wolf, Christine. 2016. “DIY videos on YouTube: Identity and possibility in the age of algorithms.” First Monday, 21(6). http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/6787/5517

Willson, Michele. 2017. “Algorithms (and the) everyday.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1200645

 


4.3 what do users understand about algorithms

Hamilton, Kevin, Karrie Karahalios, Christian Sandvig, and Motahhare Eslami. 2014. “A Path to Understanding the Effects of Algorithm Awareness.” In CHI 2014, 631-642. ACM Press. http://social.cs.uiuc.edu/papers/pdfs/paper188.pdf

Devendorf, Laura and Elizabeth Goodman. 2014. “The Algorithm Multiple, the Algorithm Material.” Contours of Algorithmic Life, UC Davis, May. http://www.slideshare.net/egoodman/the-algorithm-multiple-the-algorithm-material-reconstructing-creative-practice

Dietvorst, Berkeley, Simmons, Joseph, and Massey, Cade. 2014. “Algorithm Aversion: People Erroneously Avoid Algorithms after Seeing Them Err (July 6,). Forthcoming in Journal of Experimental Psychology. http://ssrn.com/abstract=2466040

Berg, Martin. 2014. Participatory trouble: Towards an understanding of algorithmic structures on Facebook. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial research on Cyberspace, 8(3). http://www.cyberpsychology.eu/view.php?cisloclanku=2014093001&article=2

Eslami, Motahhare, Rickman, Aimee, Vaccaro, Kristen, Aleyasen, Amirhossein, Vuong, Andy, Karahalios, Karrie, Hamilton, Kevin, & Sandvig, Christian. 2015. “I always assumed that I wasn’t really that close to [her]”: Reasoning about Invisible Algorithms in News Feeds.” 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 153-162. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~csandvig/research/Eslami_Algorithms_CHI15.pdf

Bucher, Taina. 2016. “The algorithmic imaginary: exploring the ordinary affects of Facebook algorithms.” Information, Communication & Society. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1154086

Rader, Emilee, and Gray, Rebecca. 2015. “Understanding User Beliefs About Algorithmic Curation in the Facebook News Feed.” In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA: ACM: 173-182. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=2702123.2702174

Bucher, Taina. 2017. “The algorithmic imaginary: exploring the ordinary affects of Facebook algorithms.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1154086

 


4.4 the discursive production of algorithms to shape their public perception

Sandvig, Christian. 2015. “Seeing the Sort: The Aesthetic and Industrial Defense of ‘The Algorithm.’” Journal of the New Media Caucus http://median.newmediacaucus.org/art-infrastructures-information/seeing-the-sort-the-aesthetic-and-industrial-defense-of-the-algorithm/

Roberge, Jonathan and Melançon, Louis. 2015. “Being the King Kong of algorithmic culture is a tough job after all: Google’s regimes of justification and the meanings of Glass.” Convergence. http://con.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/07/01/1354856515592506.abstract

Neyland, Daniel. 2016. “Bearing Account-Able Witness to the Ethical Algorithmic System.” Science, Technology & Human Values 41(1).  http://sth.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/07/28/0162243915598056.abstract

Birkbak, Andreas and Hjalmar Bang Carlsen. 2016. “The World of Edgerank: Rhetorical Justifications of Facebook’s News Feed Algorithm.” Computational Culture 5. http://computationalculture.net/article/the-world-of-edgerank-rhetorical-justifications-of-facebooks-news-feed-algorithm

Bucher, Taina. 2016. “‘Machines don’t have instincts’: Articulating the computational in journalism.” New Media & Society http://nms.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/13/1461444815624182.abstract

Bilic, Pasko. 2016. “Search algorithms, hidden labour, and information control” Big Data & Society, January-June 2016: 1-9 http://bds.sagepub.com/content/3/1/2053951716652159

 


5. methods and approaches for studying algorithmic systems

Ratto, Matt. 2011. “Critical Making: Conceptual and Material Studies in Technology and Social Life.” The Information Society 27 (4): 252–60. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01972243.2011.583819?journalCode=utis20

Edelman, Benjamin. 2011. “Bias in Search Results? Diagnosis and Response.” Indian Journal of Law and Technology 7: 16-32. http://www.ijlt.in/archive/volume7/2_Edelman.pdf

Marres, Noortje. 2012. “The redistribution of methods: on intervention in digital social research, broadly conceived.” The Sociological Review, 60(S1): 139-165. http://research.gold.ac.uk/7773/1/Marres_redistribution_of_methods.pdf

Diakopolous, Nick. 2013. “Rage against the Algorithms” The Atlantic, October 3. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/rage-against-the-algorithms/280255/

Sandvig, Christian, Kevin Hamilton, Karrie Karahalios, and Cedric Langbort. 2014. “Auditing Algorithms: Research Methods for Detecting Discrimination on Internet Platforms.” Data and Discrimination: Converting Critical Concerns into Productive Inquiry, 64th Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association. May 22, 2014, Seattle, WA, USA. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~csandvig/research/Auditing%20Algorithms%20–%20Sandvig%20–%20ICA%202014%20Data%20and%20Discrimination%20Preconference.pdf

Sandvig, Christian, Hamilton, Kevin, Karahalios, Karrie, & Langbort, Cedric. 2014. “An Algorithm Audit.” In: Seeta Peña Gangadharan, ed., Data and Discrimination: Collected Essays. 6-10. Washington, DC: New America Foundation. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~csandvig/research/An%20Algorithm%20Audit.pdf

Rieder, Bernard, and Sire, Guillaume. 2014. “Conflicts of Interest and Incentives to Bias: A Microeconomic Critique of Google’s Tangled Position on the Web.” New Media & Society 16 (2): 195–211. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/16/2/195

Gehl, Robert W. 2014. Reverse Engineering Social Media: Software, Culture, and Political Economy in New Media Capitalism. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.

Hannak, Aniko, Mislove, Alan, Soeller, Gary, Wilson, Chirsto, and Lazer, David. 2014. “Measuring price discrimination and steering on e-commerce web sites.” Paper presented at 2014 Conference on Internet Measurement Conference. 305-318. http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/cbw/pdf/imc151-hannak.pdf

Burrell, Jenna. 2016. “How the Machine ‘Thinks:’ Understanding Opacity in Machine Learning Algorithms.” Big Data & Society, 3(1). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1154086

Perrotta, Carlo and Williamson, Ben. 2016. “The social life of Learning Analytics: cluster analysis and the ‘performance’ of algorithmic education.” Learning Media and Technology, forthcoming. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17439884.2016.1182927

Rieder, Bernhard. 2016. “Scrutinizing an Algorithmic Technique: The Bayes Classifier as Interested Reading of Reality.” Information, Communication & Society, forthcoming. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1181195#abstract

 

 

35 Comments leave one →
  1. November 5, 2015 10:56 pm

    great list, thanks for this. Seeing as algorithms today are almost synonymous with (or rather, a subset of) artificial intelligence, i’m surprised not to see more material on AI. e.g. A recent collection of 200 short essays (some optimistic, others critical) at http://edge.org/responses/what-do-you-think-about-machines-that-think . Nick Bostrom has many papers on ethics and impact of AI, and of course his book super intelligence. http://www.nickbostrom.com/ also as part of the Future of Humanity Institute that he runs http://www.fhi.ox.ac.uk/research/publications/ . More essays here http://www.nature.com/news/robotics-ethics-of-artificial-intelligence-1.17611 and http://aitopics.org/topic/ethics-social-issues and scattered throughout http://futureoflife.org/ai-news/ and of course the open letter regarding priorities of AI research http://futureoflife.org/ai-open-letter/ . Some of these tend towards the more philosophical artificial ‘general’ intelligence debate, thus they have less immediate impact on society today. But nevertheless anyone thinking about these topics should at least have these references in the back of their mind I think. Then there’s also a lot of papers which are mostly technical AI research, thus they live in that context (technical AI journals, conferences etc) but they also touch upon critical issues and I think are vital to this discourse too. e.g. http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.0297

    • November 6, 2015 10:20 am

      This is a superb point, and thanks so much for all of the useful links. nick and I had a similar question when it came to literature that gathers around the idea of “big data,” which we might consider either the same literature, or certainly a close sibling. We decided to focus our efforts on work that explicitly orients itself towards algorithms, trying to work out what that should mean sociologically, and that uses it as a analytical step. But I think a larger, umbrella list might include scholarship focused on algorithms, scholarship focused on artificial intelligence, scholarship focused on machine learning, scholarship focused on big data, and scholarship focused on complex computational systems. Perhaps we need five lists that are themselves components of a mega list. Thanks again!

    • Sebastian Benthall permalink
      November 6, 2015 1:58 pm

      I want to second this comment.

      The “Superintelligence” anxieties and those expressed in some of the headers in the original list (especially rationalization vs. context) are contiguous.

      Though these are quite different scholarly communities and approaches, including the analytic futurist discussion would create opportunities for really interesting dialog.

  2. November 6, 2015 3:50 am

    This is an excellent list, thanks for putting it together!

  3. November 6, 2015 10:21 am

    Great list. At the risk of appearing shameless, my MP3: THE MEANING OF A FORMAT also discusses the deep history of an algorithm.

  4. November 6, 2015 10:47 am

    You could be interested in some of our work on how algorithms impact on how we move through (and imagine and enact) our cities:

    Ford, H., and Graham, M. 2016. Semantic Cities: Coded Geopolitics and the Rise of the Semantic Web. In Code and the City. eds. Kitchin, R., and Perng, S-Y. London: Routledge. (in press).

    Graham, M., M. Zook., and A. Boulton. 2013. Augmented Reality in the Urban Environment: contested content and the duplicity of code. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 38(3), 464-479.

    Graham, M. 2013. The Virtual Dimension. In Global City Challenges: debating a concept, improving the practice. eds. M. Acuto and W. Steele. London: Palgrave. 117-139.

    Zook, M. & M. Graham. 2007. The Creative Reconstruction of the Internet: Google and the Privatization of Cyberspace and DigiPlace. Geoforum, 38, 1322-1343.

    • November 6, 2015 11:47 am

      Very interested. Will add!

    • S Bollebakker permalink
      November 10, 2015 4:22 am

      Hamilton, K., K. Karahalios, C. Sandvig and C. Langbort. ‘The Image of the Algorithmic City: A Research Approach’. Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal 20 (2014): 61–71.

      Also ties in with ideas about algorithms and (smart) cities. Could be added perhaps.

  5. Göran Bolin permalink
    November 6, 2015 11:07 am

    Really useful list. Thanks for putting this together. You might be interested in adding this piece:
    Bolin, Göran & Jonas Andersson Schwarz (2015): ‘Heuristics of the Algorithm. Big Data, User Interpretation and Translation Strategies’, Big Data & Society, July–December 2015: 1–12. DOI: 10.1177/2053951715608406. (http://bds.sagepub.com/content/2/2/2053951715608406)

    Really a pity that we didn’t have this list when we wrote that piece.

    • November 6, 2015 11:47 am

      Thanks! Added. Also a pity I didn’t have this as I was writing my latest essay, but I have revision time to incorporate. Thanks for sending!

  6. Jacob Thebault-Spieker permalink
    November 6, 2015 12:13 pm

    I’m very excited about this list, looks like some interesting reading.

    In case you’re interested, I figured I’d mention our work, as I think it fits particularly well into section 4.2:

    Jacob Thebault-Spieker, Loren G. Terveen, and Brent Hecht. 2015. Avoiding the South Side and the Suburbs: The Geography of Mobile Crowdsourcing Markets. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (CSCW ’15). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 265-275. DOI=http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2675133.2675278

  7. Sebastian Benthall permalink
    November 6, 2015 1:47 pm

    Thank you so much for compiling this list. I think it will be extraordinarily helpful to my work!

    I am fascinated by the disciplinary distinction you are drawing here between engineering/CS/etc. and the areas of scholarship that you are including. As we know, where these kinds of boundaries are drawn matter. Why this boundary?

    I would also like to shamefully submit a piece I wrote to this list.

    http://commons.pacificu.edu/interface/vol1/iss1/3/

    • November 6, 2015 2:06 pm

      Thanks! The distinction we meant, at least at first, was that we were specifying a more sociological attention to algorithms and their implications, as opposed to the vast literature about algorithms and their workings, i.e. the CS scholarship that focuses on designing them. This is not meant to exclude literature, for example in ACM contexts, that are nevertheless asking political, sociological, or anthropological kinds of questions. It is admittedly a fuzzy distinction, and I for one am ill-equipped to be able to specify the difference inside of CS-styled scholarship.

  8. Jathan Sadowski permalink
    November 6, 2015 2:11 pm

    Fantastic list, real solid work. Here are some other suggestions that you may want to add up there. Some of them might not fit strictly under the “algorithm” rubric.

    Amoore, Louise. (2009). “Algorithmic War: Everyday Geographies of the War on Terror.” Antipode 41 (1): 49–69

    Dodge, Martin and Kitchin, Rob. (2011). Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life. MIT Press

    Snider, L. (2014). “Interrogating the Algorithm: Debt, Derivatives and the Social Reconstruction of Stock Market Trading.” Critical Sociology 40 (5): 747–761.

    Pasquale, Frank. (2015). “The Algorithmic Self.” The Hedgehog Review 17 (1): http://www.iasc-culture.org/THR/THR_article_2015_Spring_Pasquale.php

    McQuillan, Dan. (2015). “Algorithmic States of Exception.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 18 (4-5): 564–576.

    Scannell, Josh. (2015). “What Can An Algorithm Do?” DIS Magazine http://dismagazine.com/discussion/72975/josh-scannell-what-can-an-algorithm-do/

    And here’s one I wrote that might fit into this list:

    Sadowski, J. (2015). “From Mega-Machines to Mega-Algorithms.” The New Inquiry, April 28: http://thenewinquiry.com/essays/from-mega-machines-to-mega-algorithms/

  9. November 6, 2015 9:06 pm

    So much to read here… thanks!

    There’s another early one of mine (with Steve Graham) that should be here: Graham, S., & Wood, D. (2003). Digitizing surveillance: categorization, space, inequality. Critical Social Policy, 23(2), 227-248.

    And, despite what Google Scholar claims, my paper ‘Picturing Algorithmic Surveillance’ with Lucas Introna came afterwards, in 2004. It’s best found at: http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/3373.

    Other pieces from Surveillance & Society not included yet:

    O’Donnell, Casey (2014) Getting Played: Gamification and the Rise of Algorithmic Surveillance, Surveillance & Society 12(3): 349-359 http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/played

    Braverman, Irus (2014) Governing the Wild: Databases, Algorithms, and Population Models as Biopolitics, Surveillance & Society 12(1): 15-37 http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/wild

    And just about all the articles in Vol 12, No 2 (2014) Big Data Surveillance, edited by Mark Andrejevic and Kelly Gates (you can check them and choose!):

    van Dijck, Jose (2014) Datafication, dataism and dataveillance: Big Data between scientific paradigm and ideology, Surveillance & Society 12(2): 197-208. http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/datafication

    Degli Esposti, Sara (2014) When big data meets dataveillance: the hidden side of analytics, Surveillance & Society 12(2): 209-225. http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/analytics

    French, Martin (2014) Gaps in the gaze: Informatic practice and the work of public health surveillance, Surveillance & Society 12(2): 226-242. http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/gaps

    Reigeluth Tyler B. (2014) Why data is not enough: Digital traces as control of self and self-control, Surveillance & Society 12(2): 243-254. http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/enough

    van Otterlo, Martijn (2014) Automated Experimentation in Walden 3.0. : The Next step in Profiling, Predicting, Control and Surveillance, Surveillance & Society 12(2): 255-272. http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/walden3

    Klauser, Francisco R and Albrechtslund, Anders (2014) From self-tracking to smart urban infrastructures: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda on Big Data, Surveillance & Society 12(2): 273-286. http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/infrastructures

    Lindsay Thomas, Lindsay (2014) Pandemics of the future: Disease surveillance in real time, Surveillance & Society 12(2): :287-300. http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/pandemics

  10. November 7, 2015 6:57 am

    Great collection. Thanks! Here are some suggestions on papers focusing on algorithms that might be added to the list:

    Berg, M. (2014). Participatory trouble: Towards an understanding of algorithmic structures on Facebook. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial research on Cyberspace, 8(3), Article 2. http://www.cyberpsychology.eu/view.php?cisloclanku=2014093001&article=2

    Berg, M. (2012). Social Intermediaries and the Location of Agency: A Conceptual Reconfiguration of Social Network Sites. Contemporary Social Science, 7(3), 321-333. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21582041.2012.683446#.Vj3mdYSgPPI

  11. November 7, 2015 12:27 pm

    Great list! I would have probably add:
    Wendy Hui Kyong Chun (2011), Programmed Visions;
    Fox Harrell (2013), Phantasmal Media.

  12. November 7, 2015 7:25 pm

    Thanks for compiling such a great (if daunting) list! A few titles come to mind:

    This offers critical perspectives on the development of AI algorithms in a research lab:

    Agre, Philip. 1997. Computation and Human Experience. Cambridge University Press.

    This offers discussions and ethnographic accounts of how certain algorithms (e.g. radiosity) enable professionals to make new claims and re-define their social roles.

    Loukissas, Yanni Alexander. 2012. Co-Designers: Cultures of Computer Simulation in Architecture. New York: Routledge.

    You may also wish to include my recent book where I discuss the development of the first algorithms for numerical control and Computer-Aided Design through a STS-Design Studies lens.

    Cardoso Llach, Daniel. 2015. Builders of the Vision: Software and the Imagination of Design. London, New York: Routledge.

    A version of one of the chapters can be accessed for free here:

    Cardoso Llach, Daniel. 2015. “Software Comes to Matter: Towards a Material History of Computational Design.” DesignIssues 31 (3): 41–55. doi:10.1162/DESI_a_00337. http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/DESI_a_00337

    There’s also this early discussion about visual algorithms in design and the arts:

    Stiny, George, and James Gips. 1978. “Algorithmic Aesthetics: Computer Models for Criticism and Design in the Arts.” Algorithmic Aesthetics. http://www.algorithmicaesthetics.org/.

    And this one, which takes liberties with the term but illustrates how contemporary architectural theories frame the question of algorithms.

    Carpo, Mario. 2011. The Alphabet and the Algorithm. 1st ed. The MIT Press.

  13. November 7, 2015 8:59 pm

    Wow. A tremendous list, indeed. I will be returning here to read more later. I really enjoyed the Deleuze article that builds upon some of key Foucaldian terms.

    Here are some others you might wish to add:

    Eslami, M., Rickman, A., Vaccaro, K., Aleyasen, A., Vuong, A., Karahalios, K., Hamilton, K., & Sandvig, C. (2015). “I always assumed that I wasn’t really that close to [her]”: Reasoning about Invisible Algorithms in News Feeds. Paper presented at 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Pages 153-162

    Greenfield, A. (2015, June 29). Uber, or: The technics and politics of socially corrosive mobility [blog]. https://speedbird.wordpress.com/2015/06/29/uber-or-the-technics-and-politics-of-socially-corrosive-mobility/

    Hannak, A., Mislove, A., Soeller, G., Wilson, C., & Lazer, D. (2014, November). Measuring price discrimination and steering on e-commerce web sites. Paper presented at 2014 Conference on Internet Measurement Conference. Pages 305-318

    Hargittai, E. (2007). The social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions of search engines: An introduction. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 769-777.

    Hess, A. (2014). You are what you compute (and what is computed for you): Considerations of digital rhetorical identification. Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric, 4(1/2), 1-18.

    Johnson, N. R. (2012). Information infrastructure as rhetoric: Tools for analysis. Poroi, 8(1), 1-3.

    Tufecki, Z. (2014). Engineering the public: Big data, surveillance and computational politics. First Monday, 19(7). http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/4901/4097

  14. November 11, 2015 6:33 am

    This is fantastic. Thank you so much.

  15. November 15, 2015 1:00 pm

    Dear Tarleton & Nick,

    thanks for the effort of putting this very helpful list together.
    I would like to draw you attention to the following publications of our mediachange.ch division:

    Latzer, Michael / Hollnbuchner, Katharina / Just, Natascha / Saurwein, Florian (2014): The economics of algorithmic selection on the Internet. University of Zurich, Zurich. http://www.mediachange.ch/media//pdf/publications/Economics_of_algorithmic_selection_WP.pdf

    Saurwein, Florian / Just, Natascha / Latzer, Michael (2015): Governance of algorithms: options and limitations. In: info, Vol. 17 (6), 35-49. http://www.mediachange.ch/media//pdf/publications/GovernanceOfAlgorithms.pdf

    Dörr, Konstantin (2015): Mapping the field of Algorithmic Journalism. In: Digital Journalism [Forthcoming online before print], doi: 10.1080/21670811.2015.1096748. http://www.mediachange.ch/media//pdf/publications/MAPPING_THE_FIELD_OF_ALGORITHMIC_JOURNALISM_DoerrK_.pdf

    Best regards,
    Michael

  16. November 16, 2015 9:59 pm

    A great list I am recommending to my students – I wonder whether it could be turned into a downloadable RIS file or Mendeley group or similar to make it easy to “drill down” to the abstracts (or keyword search them). Or even just put the list of headings at the top, anchored to the headings down below?

    • November 25, 2015 5:27 pm

      David, Great suggestions. I added the headings at the top, clickable down to the section below. For starters.

  17. November 25, 2015 11:24 am

    These might be relevant:

    Halfaker, A., Geiger, R. S., Morgan, J. T., & Riedl, J. (2012). The rise and decline of an open collaboration system: How Wikipedia’s reaction to popularity is causing its decline. American Behavioral Scientist, 0002764212469365.
    https://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~halfak/publications/The_Rise_and_Decline/halfaker13rise-preprint.pdf
    – Discusses how Wikipedia editors developed technologies that use subjective algorithms to make quality control more efficient, but they inadvertently also made Wikipedia a harsh place for newcomers.

    Halfaker, A., Geiger, R. S., & Terveen, L. G. (2014, April). Snuggle: Designing for efficient socialization and ideological critique. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 311-320). ACM.
    http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~halfak/publications/Snuggle/halfaker14snuggle-preprint.pdf
    – Discusses how the standpoint of the designers of Wikipedia’s algorithmic quality control tools was enacted through the processes that the tools support. Also describes a proof of concept system that uses the same subjective algorithms to reverse the order and open up the more dominant systems to critique.

  18. November 27, 2015 6:25 am

    This list is very useful. These are a few possible additions, which are primarily focused on ICT and algorithms in legal, regulatory, and governance contexts.

    Agar, J. (2003). The Government Machine. MIT Press.

    Benjamin, S., Bhuvaneswari, R., Rajan, P., & Manjunatha. (2007). Bhoomi: E-Governance, or, an Anti-Politics Machine Necessary to Globalize Bangalore? Retrieved 2014-05-19, from http://casumm.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/bhoomi-e-governance.pdf

    Bovens, M., & Zouridis, S. (2002). From Street-Level to System-Level Bureaucracies: How Information and Communication Technology is Transforming Administrative Discretion and Constitutional Control. Public Administration Review, 62(2), 174-184.

    Citron, D. K. (2008). Open code governance. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 355-387.

    Citron, D. K. (2008). Technological due process. Washington University Law Review, 85, 1249-1313.

    Dunleavy, P., & Margetts, H. (2010). The second wave of digital era governance. Philosophical Transactions A.

    Dunleavy, P., Margetts, H., Bastow, S., & Tinkler, J. (2008). Digital Era Governance: IT Corporations, the State and E-Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Dutton, W. H., & Kraemer, K. L. (1980). Automating bias. Society, 17(2), 36-41.

    Hildebrandt, M. (2009). Technology and the end of law. In E. Claes, W. Devroe, & B.

    Keirsbilck (Eds.), Facing the limits of the law (p. 443). Berlin: Springer.

    Hildebrandt, M., & Koops, B.-J. (2007). A Vision of Ambient Law. Retrieved 2014-08-27, from http://www.fidis.net/resources/fidis-deliverables/profiling/d79-a-vision-of-ambient-law/

    Kallinikos, J. (2011). Governing through technology: Information artefacts and social practice. Palgrave Macmillan.

    Koops, B.-J. (2008). Criteria for Normative Technology: The Acceptability of Code as Law in Light of Democratic and Constitutional Values. In R. Brownsword & K. Yeung (Eds.), Regulating Technologies. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

    Margetts, H., & Dunleavy, P. (2013). The second wave of digital-era governance: a quasi-paradigm for government on the Web. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 371.

    Morison, J. (2010). Gov 2.0: Towards a User Generated State? Modern Law Review, 73(4), 551-577.

    Schartum, D. W. (2010). Developing eGovernment Systems—Legal, Technological and Organizational Aspects. Scandinavian Studies in Law, 56, 125-147.

  19. Christian Sandvig permalink
    November 30, 2015 10:26 am

    Are you taking suggestion for removals? I think having the Kowalski piece at the top of ( overviews | technical ) is pretty misleading. Kowalski is arguing for the use of predicate logic to **analyze** algorithms, but the piece is written with an overbroad title and abstract that means it could easily be mistaken for a definition of algorithms if you don’t read it all the way through. Far from being an attempt to define the term “algorithm” or a foundational article, it’s an obscure approach that didn’t catch on.

  20. Amanda Jurno permalink
    April 14, 2016 9:11 am

    Thanks for sharing! These will be very helpful.

  21. May 18, 2016 4:17 pm

    Rieder, Bernhard. 2016. “Scrutinizing an Algorithmic Technique: The Bayes Classifier as Interested Reading of Reality.” Information, Communication & Society 0 (0): 1–18. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2016.1181195.

    Abstract: This paper outlines the notion of ‘algorithmic technique’ as a middle ground between concrete, implemented algorithms and the broader study and theorization of software. Algorithmic techniques specify principles and methods for doing things in the medium of software and they thus constitute units of knowledge and expertise in the domain of software making. I suggest that algorithmic techniques are a suitable object of study for the humanities and social science since they capture the central technical principles behind actual software, but can generally be described in accessible language. To make my case, I focus on the field of information ordering and, first, discuss the wider historical trajectory of formal or ‘mechanical’ reasoning applied to matters of commerce and government before, second, moving to the investigation of a particular algorithmic technique, the Bayes classifier. This technique is explicated through a reading of the original work of M. E. Maron in the early 1960 and presented as a means to subject empirical, ‘datafied’ reality to an interested reading that confers meaning to each variable in relation to an operational goal. After a discussion of the Bayes classifier in relation to the question of power, the paper concludes by coming back to its initial motive and argues for increased attention to algorithmic techniques in the study of software.

  22. May 30, 2016 4:49 pm

    Dear Tarleton and Nick,

    You may also want to add our new paper:

    Just, Natascha / Latzer, Michael (2016): Governance by Algorithms: Reality Construction by Algorithmic Selection on the Internet. In: Media, Culture & Society, Published online before print April 21, 2016, doi: 10.1177/0163443716643157

    Best regards and many thanks,
    Natascha

  23. June 1, 2016 2:36 pm

    Rieder, Bernhard. 2016. “Scrutinizing an Algorithmic Technique: The Bayes Classifier as Interested Reading of Reality.” Information, Communication & Society 0 (0): 1–18. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2016.1181195.

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